Current treatments for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are effective in reducing morbidity and mortality but are not specific and have severe adverse effects. Based on understanding of the different dysregulated immunological pathways involved in SLE pathogenesis, specific targeted therapies were developed. This review presents the current and the near-future novel biological immune targeted treatments, such as B cell-targeted therapy, cytokine blockade, peptide-based treatments and other novel treatments for SLE.
"Imbalances between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines are hallmarks of the pathogenesis of SLE [19,20]. It has been demonstrated that pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and cytokine IL-10 levels are significantly elevated in the serum of SLE patients and correlate with disease activity [13,21,22]. In particular, the expressions of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 are markedly elevated in SLE patients with lupus nephritis [20-22]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-37 (IL-37), a new member of IL-1 family cytokine, is recently identified as a natural inhibitor of innate immunity. This study aimed to measure the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and serum levels of IL-37 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to investigate its role in SLE, including its correlation with disease activity, organ disorder and the regulation of inflammatory cytokines.
The expressions of IL-37 mRNAs in PBMCs and serum IL-37 levels in 66 SLE patients were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SLE patients PBMCs were stimulated with recombinant IL-37, levels of cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-10 were detected by RT-PCR and ELISA.
IL-37 mRNAs and serum protein levels were higher in patients with SLE compared with healthy controls. Patients with active disease showed higher IL-37 mRNAs and serum protein levels compared with those with inactive disease as well as healthy controls. Serum IL-37 levels correlated with SLEDAI and inversely with C3 and C4. Serum IL-37 levels were higher in SLE patients with renal involvement compared with those without renal disease. In vitro, IL-37 inhibited the production of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 in PBMCs of patients with SLE, whereas the production of IL-10 was unaffected.
IL-37 associated with SLE disease activity, especially related with SLE renal disease activity. IL-37 is an important cytokine in the control of SLE pathogenesis by suppressing the production of inflammatory cytokines. Thus, IL-37 may provide a novel research target for the pathogenesis and therapy of SLE.
Journal of Translational Medicine 03/2014; 12(1):69. DOI:10.1186/1479-5876-12-69 · 3.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The morbidity and mortality of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a subject of intense relevance in the literature, yet descriptions of prolonged and sustained remissions or even cure are barely reported. In recent decades the life expectancy in SLE patients has improved, but the quality of life seems to be poor compared with other chronic diseases and with the general population. The immunopathogenesis of SLE is complex and not fully understood, so patients have been treated with nonspecific immunosuppressive therapies. But in recent years, because of advances in basic science, targeted therapies have been developed. Despite the progress made in treating SLE, currently a cure in SLE seems to be a myth. SLE it seems, remains incurable. A specific treatment has not emerged to directly abrogate a disease-specific autoimmune response. Relapsing manifestations and complications of treatment still remain important markers of morbidity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD22 is a B-cell-specific transmembrane glycoprotein found on the surface of most B cells; it modulates B-cell function, survival and apoptosis. CD22 has emerged as an ideal target for monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based therapy of B-cell malignancies including most lymphomas and many leukemias. Epratuzumab, an anti-CD22 mAb, has been developed in various forms, including as an unlabeled (naked) mAb, as a radioimmunotherapeutic, as an antibody drug conjugate (ADC), and as a vehicle for CD22-targeted nanoparticles. While clinical trials with unlabeled epratuzumab have demonstrated modest results, its combination with rituximab in phase II studies has been more encouraging. Based on the potential for CD22 to become internalized, CD22-targeted constructs carrying radioisotopes or toxins have generated promising results. Radioimmunotherapy, utilizing (90)Y-labeled epratuzumab, was shown to be highly effective in patients with follicular lymphoma, generating a complete response (CR) rate of 92 % and progression-free survival of more than 2 years. ADC therapy is a promising therapeutic approach to B-cell malignancies which includes the direct conjugation of mAbs with cytotoxic agents. Phase II studies of inotuzumab ozogamicin, an ADC which combines anti-CD22 mAb with calicheamicin, an enediyne antibiotic which mediates apoptosis, in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia have produced an overall response rate (ORR) of greater than 50 % in treatment-refractory patients. Phase I trials of moxetumomab pasudotox, an ADC which combines anti-CD22 with PE38, a fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A, have been completed in hairy cell leukemia with a ORR of 86 %. Finally, a review of CD22-targeted nanoparticles, that include a doxorubicin-containing lipid complex that uses synthetic high-affinity CD22 ligand mimetics as well as anti-CD22 mAb-coated pegylated liposomas doxorubin (PLD), has demonstrated promising results in pre-clinical models of human lymphoma. Moreover, novel anti-CD22 mAb that block CD22 ligand binding as well as second generation ADC that utilize biodegradable linkers and more potent toxins hold great hope for the future of CD22-targeted therapeutics that may translate into better outcomes for patients with CD22-positive malignancies.
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