Culture of Azolla filiculoides in artificial conditions

Plant Biosystems (Impact Factor: 1.92). 11/2009; 2009(143):431–434. DOI: 10.1080/11263500903172110


Azolla filiculoides showed a planar development in four culture media, but with overlapping of sporophytes after 28 days, and curled roots in all cases except for IRRI2. The difference in biomass between the media IRRI2 and IRRI1-Fe10x was statistically significant at Days 14, 21 and 28 by ANOVA. Medium IRRI2 gave the highest duplication time.

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    • "2. Materials and methods 2.1. A. filiculoides and M. aeruginosa growth conditions A. filiculoides (accession number FI1010) obtained from the germplasm collection at International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) was grown in the Hoagland H-40 medium, pH 6.1–6.2, at controlled conditions of temperature, photoperiod and light intensity (Pereira and Carrapiço, 2009 "
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 04/2015; 118(1):11-20. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.04.008 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    • "Even so, some compounds already identified in Azolla species could be related with the activities demonstrated in this research . The phenylpropanoids α-asarone and isoeugenol methyl ether of A. filiculoides (Greca et al. 1989), the volatile compounds such trans-2-hexenal and geraniol of A. filiculoides (Pereira et al. 2009), the anthraquinones of A. microphylla (Abraham and Aeri 2012) and the flavonoids, phenols or coumarins of A. microphylla (Abraham 2013) can have bioactivity against fungi and bacteria. The high MIC values found for both antibacterial and antifungal extracts probably indicate that compounds responsible for those activities may be present in very low levels in the pool of compounds that compose the extract. "
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    ABSTRACT: Previous reports indicate the use of the aquatic fern Azolla as medicinal plant in New Zealand and Tanzania against sore throat and cough, respectively. Therefore, the aims were to evaluate the bioactivity of Azolla organic and aqueous extracts against bacteria and yeasts. Organic (dichloromethane:methanol) and aqueous extracts obtained from six Azolla species were tested against bacterial pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains (four Gram-positive and three Gram-negative) and pathogenic fungi (three clinical isolates of Candida albicans and one of C. glabrata), using the agar diffusion method and the broth microdilution assay. The results showed that organic extracts of A. caroliniana and A. rubra and of A. filiculoides inhibited the growth of B. subtilis ATCC 6633 whereas those of A. caroliniana and A. microphylla inhibited the growth of S. aureus ATCC 25923. The MICs were higher than 4 mg/ml for A. caroliniana, A. microphylla and A. rubra and higher than 3.25 mg/ml for A. filiculoides. Aqueous extracts of A. filiculoides, A. caroliniana, A. microphylla, A. rubra and A. pinnata var. pinnata induce a small inhibition zone (1 mm) in C. albicans ATCC 10231 with a MIC higher than 12.5 mg/ml. In conclusion, organic and aqueous extracts of some Azolla species show potential for use against infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria and C. albicans, respectively.
    Symbiosis 02/2015; 65(1). DOI:10.1007/s13199-015-0316-4 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Physiological and biochemical effects of cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a cyanobacterial toxin that inhibits protein synthesis and released during a harmful cyanobacterial bloom, has been overlooked in plants. Therefore, at the present research, the toxic effects (physiological and biochemical) of a crude extract containing CYN were assessed in the aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides exposed to three concentrations (0.05, 0.5 and 5 μg CYN mL(-1)). At 5 μg CYN mL(-1), fern growth rate has showed a drastic decrease (0.001 g g(-1) day(-1)) corresponding to a 99.8 % inhibition, but at the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.5 μg CYN mL(-1) the growth rate was similar to the control plants. Growth rate also indicated a IC50 of 2.9 μg CYN mL(-1). Those data point to the presence of other compounds in the crude extract may stimulate the fern growth and/or the fern is tolerant to CYN. Chlorophyll (a and b), carotenoids and protein content as well as the activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) has increased at 5 μg CYN mL(-1) which may indicate that photosynthesis and protein synthesis are not affected by CYN and the probable activation of defense and detoxifying mechanisms to overcome the effects induced by the presence of CYN. Low uptake of cylindrospermopsin (1.314 μg CYN g(-1) FW) and low bioconcentration factor (0.401) point towards to a safe use of A. filiculoides as biofertilizer and as food source, but also indicate that the fern is not suitable for CYN phytoremediation.
    Ecotoxicology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10646-015-1521-x · 2.71 Impact Factor