Dopamine transporter imaging is associated with long-term outcomes in Parkinson's disease
ABSTRACT Dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) imaging has been studied as a diagnostic tool for degenerative parkinsonism. Our aim was to measure the prognostic value of imaging for motor and nonmotor outcomes in Parkinson's disease (PD). We prospectively evaluated a Parkinson's cohort after enrollment in a de novo clinical trial with a battery of motor (UPDRS), cognitive (Montreal Cognitive Assessment), and behavioral measures. DAT imaging with [(123) I][β]-CIT and single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) was performed at baseline and after 22 months. In total, 491 (91%) of the 537 subjects had evidence of DA deficiency on their baseline scan, consistent with PD, and were included in the analyses. The cohort was followed for 5.5 (0.8) years, with a mean duration of diagnosis of 6.3 (1.2). Lower striatal binding at baseline was independently associated with higher risk for clinical milestones and measures of disease severity, including motor-related disability, falling and postural instability, cognitive impairment, psychosis, and clinically important depressive symptoms. Subjects in the bottom quartile for striatal binding, compared to the top quartile, had an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 3.3 (1.7, 6.7) for cognitive impairment and 12.9 (2.6, 62.4) for psychosis. Change from baseline in imaging after 22 months was also independently associated with motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes. DAT imaging with [(123) I][β]-CIT and SPECT, shortly after the diagnosis of PD, was independently associated with clinically important long-term motor and nonmotor outcomes. These results should be treated as hypothesis generating and require confirmation. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.
SourceAvailable from: Alice Cronin-Golomb[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is largely attributed to disruptions in the nigrostriatal dopamine system. These neurodegenerative changes may also have a more global effect on intrinsic brain organization at the cortical level. Functional brain connectivity between neurocognitive systems related to cognitive processing is critical for effective neural communication, and is disrupted across neurological disorders. Three core neurocognitive networks have been established as playing a critical role in the pathophysiology of many neurological disorders: the default-mode network (DMN), the salience network (SN), and the central executive network (CEN). In healthy adults, DMN–CEN interactions are anti-correlated while SN–CEN interactions are strongly positively correlated even at rest, when individuals are not engaging in any task. These intrinsic between-network interactions at rest are necessary for efficient suppression of the DMN and activation of the CEN during a range of cognitive tasks. To identify whether these network interactions are disrupted in individuals with PD, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to compare between-network connectivity between 24 PD participants and 20 age-matched controls (MC). In comparison to the MC, individuals with PD showed significantly less SN–CEN coupling and greater DMN–CEN coupling during rest. Disease severity, an index of striatal dysfunction, was related to reduced functional coupling between the striatum and SN. These results demonstrate that individuals with PD have a dysfunctional pattern of interaction between core neurocognitive networks compared to what is found in healthy individuals, and that interaction between the SN and the striatum is even more profoundly disrupted in those with greater disease severity.
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ABSTRACT: Psychosis is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease whose pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Parkinson's disease in conjunction with psychosis has been shown to induce injury to extracorticospinal tracts as well as within some cortical areas. In this study, Parkinson's disease patients with psychosis who did not receive antipsychotic treatment and those without psychosis underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Results revealed that in Parkinson's disease patients with psychosis, damage to the left frontal lobe, bilateral occipital lobe, left cingulated gyrus, and left hippocampal white-matter fibers were greater than damage to the substantia nigra or the globus pallidus. Damage to white-matter fibers in the right frontal lobe and right cingulate gyrus were also more severe than in the globus pallidus, but not the substantia nigra. Damage to frontal lobe and cingulate gyrus white-matter fibers was more apparent than that to occipital or hippocampal fiber damage. Compared with Parkinson's disease patients without psychosis, those with psychosis had significantly lower fractional anisotropy ratios of left frontal lobe, bilateral occipital lobe, left cingu-lated gyrus, and left hippocampus to ipsilateral substantia nigra or globus pallidus, indicating more severe damage to white-matter fibers. These results suggest that psychosis associated with Par-kinson's disease is probably associated with an imbalance in the ratio of white-matter fibers be-tween brain regions associated with psychiatric symptoms (frontal lobe, occipital lobe, cingulate gyrus, and hippocampus) and those associated with the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (the substantia nigra and globus pallidus). The relatively greater damage to white-matter fibers in psychiatric symptom-related brain regions than in extracorticospinal tracts might explain why chosis often occurs in Parkinson's disease patients.Neural Regeneration Research 09/2013; 8(27):2548-56. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2013.27.006 · 0.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Accurate diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD) and other degenerative parkinsonian syndromes is important for management and prognostic purposes. Diagnosis can be challenging in early disease and in atypical cases. We reviewed the literature on the application of dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography (DAT-SPECT) in degenerative parkinsonism and related disorders as a diagnostic tool. The use of DAT-SPECT shows some utility in the early diagnosis of PD and differentiation from other non-degenerative parkinsonian disorders (i.e. essential tremor, dystonic tremor, drug-induced and in most cases of psychogenic parkinsonism), since it can accurately detect the presynaptic dopaminergic deficit. The test has been shown to have high sensitivity/specificity by multiple studies. DAT imaging may also have some prognostic value for disease progression. However, it has limited value in differentiating among degenerative causes of parkinsonism. DAT imaging has some limitations. In most studies, true test accuracy is unknown since the gold standard is clinical diagnosis by a movement disorders neurologist. Therefore, the sensitivity of the test cannot exceed that of the clinical diagnosis. In addition, false negative scans occur and highlight the need for clinical follow-up. Clinical assessment remains the most important aspect in evaluating these patients. DAT-SPECT is a sensitive modality to detect nigrostriatal degeneration. In spite of increasing data using this technique, however, more long-term clinical studies are required to determine how DAT-SPECT scan can guide decision-making. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2014.11.007 · 4.13 Impact Factor