Adult opinions about the age at which children can be left home alone, bathe alone, or bike alone: Second Injury Control and Risk Survey (ICARIS-2)
ABSTRACT This study describes adult opinions about child supervision during various activities.
Data come from a survey of U.S. adults. Respondents were asked the minimum age a child could safely: stay home alone; bathe alone; or ride a bike alone. Respondents with children were asked if their child had ever been allowed to: play outside alone; play in a room at home for more than 10minutes alone; bathe with another child; or bathe alone.
The mean age that adults believed a child could be home alone was 13.0years (95% CI=12.9-13.1), bathe alone was 7.5years (95% CI=7.4-7.6), or bike alone was 10.1years (95% CI=10.0-10.3). There were significant differences by income, education, and race.
Assessing adult's understanding of the appropriate age for independent action helps set a context for providing guidance on parental supervision. Guidelines for parents should acknowledge social norms and child development stages.
Knowledge of social norms can help guide injury prevention messages for parents.
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ABSTRACT: The social environment has a powerful influence on the risk of being injured. This influence is mediated through the myriad ways it shapes the lifestyles, exposures, and behaviors of individuals. The building blocks of our social environment are social interactions or the ways that people act toward, respond to, or influence one another (Robertson, 1987). These interactions are shaped by our culture, the structure of social relations as reflected in the nature of institutions such as the family and the economic order, and processes such as the socialization of children. The purposes of this chapter are (1) to provide a conceptual framework for discussing the relationship between the social environment and injury prevention; (2) to provide illustrative evidence for a link between the social environment and injury; (3) to articulate the value of modifying the social environment for injury prevention; and (4) to describe and assess the evidence for selected injury prevention interventions, programs, or policies that are related to the social environment. We hope this chapter will provide a basis for more fully incorporating injury prevention strategies that address the social environment into the mainstream of the injury prevention fi eld.12/2006: pages 277-294;
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ABSTRACT: This study reviewed the relationship between recognized dimensions of supervision and children's injuries based on Saluja et al's (Injury Control and Safety Promotion. 2004;11:17-22) hierarchal model of supervision strategies. A systematic review of peer-review studies was done with the earliest records available to 2007. There were 112 potentially relevant articles identified; 31 studies met all inclusion criteria. Reported studies were categorized according to the dimensions of supervision they addressed. Studies were not evenly distributed across the dimensions. There was evidence from the study that directly linking dimensions of supervision to child injury risk and outcomes is scarce. Future studies should consider attention, proximity, and continuity of supervision to provide a holistic understanding of the relationship between supervision and injury.Family & community health 32(2):123-35. DOI:10.1097/FCH.0b013e3181994740 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Developmental problems in young children are common and have lifelong implications for health and wellbeing. Early detection of developmental problems provides an opportunity for early intervention to shift a child's developmental trajectory and optimise their potential. This article describes and recommends a broader concept of developmental surveillance that should replace the reliance on traditional methods of early detection such as milestone checklists, parent recall, developmental screening tests and clinical judgment. General practitioners and other professionals in regular contact with children and their families are ideally placed to monitor a child's development, detect problems early and to intervene to optimise the child's development and thus promote long term health and wellbeing. Developmental surveillance involves eliciting parental concerns, performing skilled observations of the child, and providing guidance on health and development issues that are relevant to the child's age and the parents' needs. Standardised tools are available to assist GPs to elicit parental concerns and guide clinical decision making.Australian family physician 09/2011; 40(9):666-70. · 0.67 Impact Factor