Localization and activity of rDNA genes in tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae).

Heredity (Impact Factor: 3.8). 05/1995; 74(3):624-630. DOI: 10.1038/hdy.1995.74
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT Siver staining of male meiotic nuclei of six species f the tiger beetle genus Cicindela (tribe Cicindelini), with multiple sex chromosomes, reveals the presence of active nucleolar organizing regions (NORs) in the sex vesicle. In one species, Cicindela melancholica, fluorescence in situ hybridization b(FISH) with a ribosomal probbe showed that rDNA genes are in one of the three X chromosomes and in the Y chromosome. Silver staining and FISH show that the related species Cicindela paludosa with a male XO system. has NORs located in one pair of autosomes. In Megacephala euphratica (tribe Megacephalini) these techniques indicate that NORs are located in three autosomal pairs but not in the single X chromosomes of males. In all these species the nucleolus can be seen from the onset of meiosis to the end of the diffuse stage; it disappears from diplotene to the end of meiosis and appears again during the spermatid stage. From these results it is concluded that: (i) the nucleolus does not seem to play a major role in the pairing and association of the multiple sex chromosomes during first meiotic prophase and metaphase; (ii) the occurrence of NORs in the heterosomes of species having multiple sex chromosomes is thought to be an ancestral condition for the genus Cicindela; and (iii) changes of location of NORs from heterosomes to the autosomes have occurred within species of this genus, at least in species showing extensive karyotypic repatterning.

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    ABSTRACT: Species of the subtribe Oedionychina not only have a highly uniform diploid number of 2n = 22 (20+X+y) but have the karyotypic peculiarity of possessing extremely large sex chromosomes. We analyzed Paranaita opima embryos and gonadal cells to determine their diploid number, chromosomal morphology, type of sex determination system, consti- tutive heterochromatin pattern and which chromosomes bear nucleolus organizer regions (NORs). The diploid num- ber of P. opima was 2n = 22 (20+XY/XX) with all chromosomes being metacentric. Chromosome pair 6 showed an interstitial secondary constriction on the short arm. The C-banding technique revealed centromeric constitutive heterochromatin in all chromosomes, which, in pair 6, extended up to the secondary constriction of the short arm, ad- ditional C-bands also being present on the Y chromosome. Silver nitrate nucleolar organizer region (Ag-NOR) stain- ing showed NORs on the secondary constriction of pair 6. Fluorochrome analysis with chromomycin A3 (CMA3), 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and the distamycin A (DA) counterstain showed that the short arm of chromo- some pair 6 exhibited a GC-rich block extending from the proximal to the median region, including part of the second- ary constriction. The same techniques also showed AT-rich blocks at the centromeric region of all chromosomes and at the terminal region of the short arm of pair 6. The basic karyotype characteristics and C band pattern of P. opima are similar to those described for other species in the subtribe Oedionychina. The pattern of autosomal NORs ob- served in P. opima corresponds to that registered in the majority of the Chrysomelidae species.
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    ABSTRACT: The major ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci were localized on meiotic and mitotic chromosomes and in interphase nuclei of 18 ground-beetle species belonging to three tribes of the supertribe Carabitae by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using a PCR-amplified 18S rDNA as a probe. Meiotic observations indicate that the 18S rDNA sequences are located on the largest autosomal bivalent in 12 species of Carabus, two species of Calosoma (both genera belonging to the tribe Carabini), and three sibling species of Ceroglossus chilensis (tribe Ceroglossini). The data suggest the occurrence of a conservative pattern in these three genera despite the chromosomal rearrangements that have led to karyotypes with higher chromosome numbers in Ceroglossus. A different result is found in Cychrus caraboides (tribe Cychrini), where ribosomal cistrons are located in two medium-sized autosomal pairs. Further species of Cychrini should be studied for corroborating the occurrence of molecular and karyotypical apomorphies in Cychrus with regard to the genera Carabus, Calosoma and Ceroglossus.
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