Increasing the yield of recombinant thyroid-stimulating hormone-stimulated 2-(18-fluoride)-flu-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography-CT in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma
ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of recombinant thyroid-stimulating hormone (rTSH)-stimulated 2-(18-fluoride)-flu-2-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-CT in detecting recurrence in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Methods Consecutive (18)F-FDG PET-CT scans performed with rTSH stimulation between 2007 and 2010 in patients with a history of papillary or follicular thyroid carcinoma were reviewed. PET-CT findings were correlated with thyroglobulin levels, and histological, clinical and radiological follow-up. Results 58 rTSH PET-CT scans were performed in 47 patients with a previous thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation. The only indication for PET-CT was a raised thyroglobulin level in 46 of 58 scans, with the remainder for characterisation of equivocal radiology or staging. 25 (43%) of PET-CT scans were positive for recurrent disease. Histological correlation was available for 21 (36%) scans. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 69%, 76%, 72% and 73%, respectively. Median unstimulated thyroglobulin in true-positive scans was 33 µg l(-1) and 2.2 µg l(-1) in the remainder (p=0.12). 4 of 35 (11%) patients with unstimulated thyroglobulin levels <10 µg l(-1) had true-positive scans. Median stimulated thyroglobulin in true-positive scans was 320 µg l(-1), and 10 µg l(-1) in the remainder (p=0.046), with no positive scans with a stimulated thyroglobulin <8 µg l(-1). PET-CT directly influenced patient management in 17/58 (29%) scans. Conclusion rTSH PET-CT is a useful imaging technique for detecting disease recurrence in patients with iodine-resistant differentiated thyroid cancer. Low stimulated thyroglobulin levels are potentially useful in identifying patients unlikely to benefit from a PET-CT scan.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of combined positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) fusion imaging in the detection and management of recurrent papillary thyroid cancer. A retrospective analysis of 33 patients with suspected recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma who had undergone PET/CT was performed. PET/CT was compared with standard imaging techniques in each patient to determine whether PET/CT contributed to the therapeutic management plan. Histopathological findings were correlated to PET/CT in patients who underwent surgery. The senior author reviewed the charts of 33 patients with recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma to determine the impact PET/CT had on management. PET/CT was compared with conventional imaging results. In surgical patients, PET/CT was compared with histopathological findings to determine its sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. In 67% of the cases (22 of 33), PET/CT supplied additional information that altered or confirmed the management plan. Twenty of 33 patients underwent surgery with 36 sites assessed by histopathological analysis. PET/CT correlated with histopathological findings in 25 of 36 distinct anatomical sites, with an accuracy of 70%. The sensitivity of PET/CT in identifying recurrence was found to be 66%, with a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 27%. Combined PET/CT fusion scanning was most useful in the detection and management of recurrent papillary thyroid cancer in patients who had average thyroglobulin levels greater than 10 ng/mL and when the tumor no longer concentrated radioactive iodine. In 100% of the cases in which PET/CT localized a region suspicious for malignancy, histopathological analysis confirmed the results. When PET/CT is positive, it is a powerful tool for predicting exact locations of recurrent papillary thyroid cancer, thus making it a reliable guide for surgical planning. PET/CT is a supplement to conventional imaging and fine-needle aspiration in the workup of recurrent papillary thyroid cancer. A negative finding on PET/CT is not sufficiently reliable to preclude further investigation and treatment.The Laryngoscope 03/2005; 115(2):237-43. DOI:10.1097/01.mlg.0000154725.00787.00 · 2.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine the efficacy of combined positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) in identifying recurrent thyroid cancer and to elucidate its role in the clinical management of thyroid carcinoma. Retrospective study. Tertiary care referral academic center. One hundred twenty-four patients with previously treated thyroid carcinoma who underwent PET-CT. PET-CT images were correlated with clinicopathologic information. The influence of PET-CT findings on disease status determination and the treatment plan was evaluated. Among 121 patients undergoing iodine I 131 ((131)I) imaging (an (131)I image was unavailable for 3 patients), 80.6% had negative findings on (131)I imaging before undergoing PET-CT. Among 75 patients who had positive findings on PET-CT, 71 were true positive results. Among 49 patients who had negative findings on PET-CT, 32 were true negative results. Therefore, PET-CT demonstrated a sensitivity of 80.7%, specificity of 88.9%, positive predictive value of 94.7%, and negative predictive value of 65.3%. A significant difference was noted in the mean serum thyroglobulin levels between patients with positive vs negative PET-CT findings (192.1 vs 15.0 ng/mL, P = .01) (to convert thyroglobulin level to micrograms per liter, multiply by 1.0). Overall, distant metastases were detected in 20.2% of patients using PET-CT. There was an alteration of the treatment plan in 28.2% of patients as a result of added PET-CT information, and 21.0% of patients underwent additional surgery. PET-CT is usually performed in patients with thyroid cancer having elevated thyroglobulin levels but non-(131)I-avid tumors and has high diagnostic accuracy for identifying local, regional, and distant metastases. Additional information from PET-CT in patients with (131)I-negative and thyroglobulin-positive tumors frequently guides the clinical management of recurrent thyroid carcinoma.Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery 02/2010; 136(2):120-5. DOI:10.1001/archoto.2009.215 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thyrotropin (TSH) stimulates thyrocyte metabolism, glucose transport, and glycolysis. The interest in using recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) stimulation of fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) with positron emission tomography (PET) has been shown, but mainly for patients with high serum thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration. We evaluated the use of rhTSH-stimulated PET-FDG in patients with low serum Tg concentration. Sixty-one PET/computed tomography (CT)-FDG (Biograph Sensation 16; Siemens Medical Solutions, Knoxville, TN) were performed in 44 patients (28 women and 16 men; 51 +/- 16 years) with positive Tg levels, negative or no contributive iodine-131 whole-body scintigraphy results, and no contributive morphological imaging results (ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and CT). Thirty-eight patients had papillary carcinoma and six had follicular thyroid carcinoma. All patients had previously undergone total thyroidectomy and postoperative iodine ablation of thyroid bed remnant tissue. The rhTSH-stimulated PET/CT-FDG (5 MBq/kg) was performed after two 0.9 mg intramuscular doses of rhTSH (Thyrogen; Genzyme) which were administered 48 and 24 hours before imaging, while patients continued levothyroxine (LT(4)). Blood sampling was performed immediately before FDG injection for measurement of serum TSH and Tg concentrations (TSH(1) and Tg(1)) and after 48 hours (TSH(2) and Tg(2)). PET/CT-FDG findings were compared with the Tg: (i) at the initial iodine treatment during T(4) withdrawal (Tg(ini)), (ii) under T(4) (Tg(T4)) within 3 months before the PET/CT-FDG, (iii) with Tg(1), and (iv) with Tg(2). PET/CT-FDG findings were correlated with the findings of histology, iodine-131 whole-body scintigraphy, morphological imaging, or clinical follow-up. Results: The mean Tg(ini) was 785 +/- 2707 microg/L for a TSH of 73 +/- 64 mU/L. The mean Tg(T4) was 7 +/- 15 microg/L (T(4) = 195 +/- 59 microg/day; mean TSH of 0.24 +/- 0.57 mU/L). Among the 44 patients, PET/CT-FDG findings were positive in 20 and negative in 24. Among the 61 PET/CT-FDG, 25 PET/CT-FDG were positive (41%). Among the 25 positive PET, the Tg(T4) values were less than 10 microg/L for 19, including 9 true-positive patients (20% of the 44 patients). There was no difference of PET/CT-FDG results (positive vs. negative) as related to the serum Tg concentrations (p = 0.99 for Tg(ini), p = 0.95 for Tg(T4), p = 0.07 for Tg(1), and p = 0.42 for Tg(2)). No relation was observed with PET/CT-FDG results and initial tumor size (p = 0.52) or node metastasis (p = 0.14). In the diagnosis of recurrent disease in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and low Tg level, the sensitivity of rhTSH-stimulated PET/CT-FDG seems to be low and no correlation was observed between PET/CT-FDG findings and Tg level. However, positive PET-FDG results have been found in 9/44 (20%) patients with serum Tg levels lower than 10 microg/L. Therefore, this series shows that a cutoff value of 10 microg/L for the Tg under T(4) is probably not the best criteria to select patient candidates for PET/CT-FDG examination to detect the recurrence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association 12/2009; 20(1):15-23. DOI:10.1089/thy.2008.0416 · 3.84 Impact Factor