Antihypertensive Drug Class Use and Differential Risk of Urinary Incontinence in Community-Dwelling Older Women
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Medication use is a potentially reversible cause of urinary incontinence (UI). The objective of this longitudinal cohort study was to evaluate whether self-reported UI in community-dwelling older women is associated with the use of different classes of antihypertensive agents. METHODS: The sample consisted of 959 black and white women aged 72-81 years without baseline (Year 1) UI from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Use of any antihypertensive from 10 drug classes (ie, alpha blockers [central], alpha blockers [peripheral], angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-II receptor blockers, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, diuretics [loop], diuretics [potassium-sparing], diuretics [thiazide], and vasodilators) was determined during Year 3 in-person interviews. The number of unique antihypertensive agents used and the standardized daily dosage were also examined. Self-reported UI, operationally defined as leaking urine at least weekly during the previous 12 months, was assessed at Year 4 visits. RESULTS: A total of 197 women (20.5%) reported UI at Year 4. Although any antihypertensive use, number of agents used, and standardized daily dosage at Year 3 were not associated with UI at Year 4, use of one particular drug class-peripheral alpha blockers (ie, doxazosin, prazosin, and terazosin)-was associated with fourfold greater odds of UI (adjusted odds ratio = 4.47; 95% confidence interval = 1.79-11.21; p = .0014). Further, in post hoc analyses, these odds nearly doubled in those also taking loop diuretics (adjusted odds ratio = 8.81; 95% confidence interval = 1.78-43.53; p = .0076). CONCLUSION: In community-dwelling older women, peripheral alpha blocker use was associated with UI, and the odds nearly doubled when used with loop diuretics.
SourceAvailable from: Ruth Klara, Maria Kirschner-Hermanns[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Geriatric patients are defined as being over 70 years of age and are vulnerable due to multimedication and multimorbidity. The typical incontinence type in geriatric patients is the overactive bladder syndrome as a result of anatomical alterations and the influence of conditions which typically occur in the elderly, e.g. diabetes mellitus, vaginal atrophy, constipation, neurological affections and dementia. This multimorbidity leads to multimedication but many pharmaceutical compounds aimed at indications of diseases distant from the urinary tract can also influence the continence situation. This has been proven for cardiac medications, such as alpha-blockers and diuretics, neurological drug therapy and analgesics. Diagnostic investigations in geriatric patients are usually non-invasive and include geriatric assessment to quantify incontinence symptoms but invasive diagnostic tools are required if the primary therapy fails or an operative intervention is planned. Pharmacotherapy considers the special requirements of the very old patient with cognitive impairment and vulnerability due to falls or delirium. In the group of anticholinergic drugs, trospium chloride seems to be the favorite substance to treat this group of patients because this hydrophilic compound is considered to be unable to cross the blood-brain barrier and therefore minimizes the risk of side effects in the central nervous system (CNS).Der Urologe 09/2014; 53(10). DOI:10.1007/s00120-014-3608-z · 0.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Up to 50 % of heart failure patients suffer from lower urinary tract symptoms. Urinary incontinence has been associated with worse functional status in patients with heart failure, occurring three times more frequently in patients with New York Heart Association Class III and IV symptoms compared with those with milder disease. The association between heart failure and urinary symptoms may be directly attributable to worsening heart failure pathophysiology; however, medications used to treat heart failure may also indirectly provoke or exacerbate urinary symptoms. This type of drug-disease interaction, in which the treatment for heart failure precipitates incontinence, and removal of medications to relieve incontinence worsens heart failure, can be termed therapeutic competition. The mechanisms by which heart failure medication such as diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and β-blockers aggravate lower urinary tract symptoms are discussed. Initiation of a prescribing cascade, whereby antimuscarinic agents or β3-agonists are added to treat symptoms of urinary urgency and incontinence, is best avoided. Recommendations and practical tips are provided that outline more judicious management of heart failure patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. Compelling strategies to improve urinary outcomes include titrating diuretics, switching ACE inhibitors, treating lower urinary tract infections, appropriate fluid management, daily weighing, and uptake of pelvic floor muscle exercises.Drugs & Aging 12/2013; 31(2). DOI:10.1007/s40266-013-0145-1 · 2.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this article is to review the current and emerging treatments of CKD prior to dialysis in the elderly. Worldwide, there are increasing numbers of people who are aged over 65 years. In parallel, there are increasing numbers of elderly patients presenting with chronic kidney disease (CKD), particularly in the more advanced stages. The elderly have quite different health care needs related to their associated comorbidity, frailty, social isolation, poor functional status, and cognitive decline. Clinical trials assessing treatments for CKD have usually excluded patients older than 70-75 years; therefore, it is difficult to translate current therapies recommended for younger patients with CKD across to the elderly. Many elderly people with CKD progress to end-stage kidney disease and face the dilemma of whether to undertake dialysis or accept a conservative approach supported by palliative care. This places pressure on the patient, their family, and on health care resources. The clinical trajectory of elderly CKD patients has in the past been unclear, but recent evidence suggests that many patients over 75 years of age with multiple comorbidities have greatly reduced life expectancies and quality of life, even if they choose dialysis treatment. Offering a conservative pathway supported by palliative care is a reasonable option for some patients under these circumstances. The elderly person who chooses to have dialysis will frequently have different requirements than younger patients. Kidney transplantation can still result in improved life expectancy and quality of life in the elderly, in carefully selected people. There is a genuine need for the inclusion of the elderly in CKD clinical trials in the future so we can produce evidence-based therapies for this group. In addition, new therapies to treat and slow CKD progression are needed for all age groups.Clinical Interventions in Aging 01/2014; 9:191-199. DOI:10.2147/CIA.S39763 · 1.82 Impact Factor