IFN-α and Lipopolysaccharide Upregulate APOBEC3 mRNA through Different Signaling Pathways.
ABSTRACT APOBEC3 (A3) proteins are virus-restriction factors that provide intrinsic immunity against infections by viruses like HIV-1 and mouse mammary tumor virus. A3 proteins are inducible by inflammatory stimuli, such as LPS and IFN-α, via mechanisms that are not fully defined. Using genetic and pharmacological studies on C57BL/6 mice and cells, we show that IFN-α and LPS induce A3 via different pathways, independently of each other. IFN-α positively regulates mouse APOBEC3 (mA3) mRNA expression through IFN-αR/PKC/STAT1 and negatively regulates mA3 mRNA expression via IFN-αR/MAPKs-signaling pathways. Interestingly, LPS shows some variation in its regulatory behavior. Although LPS-mediated positive regulation of mA3 mRNA occurs through TLR4/TRIF/IRF3/PKC, it negatively modulates mA3 mRNA via TLR4/MyD88/MAPK-signaling pathways. Additional studies on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells reveal that PKC differentially regulates IFN-α and LPS induction of human A3A, A3F, and A3G mRNA expression. In summary, we identified important signaling targets downstream of IFN-αR and TLR4 that mediate A3 mRNA induction by both LPS and IFN-α. Our results provide new insights into the signaling targets that could be manipulated to enhance the intracellular store of A3 and potentially enhance A3 antiviral function in the host.
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ABSTRACT: Background Exosomes are membranous nanovesicles secreted into the extracellular milieu by diverse cell types. Exosomes facilitate intercellular communication, modulate cellular pheno/genotype, and regulate microbial pathogenesis. Although human semen contains exosomes, their role in regulating infection of viruses that are sexually transmitted remains unknown. In this study, we used semen exosomes purified from healthy human donors to evaluate the role of exosomes on the infectivity of different strains of HIV-1 in a variety of cell lines.ResultsWe show that human semen contains a heterologous population of exosomes, enriched in mRNA encoding tetraspanin exosomal markers and various antiviral factors. Semen exosomes are internalized by recipient cells irrespective of cell type and upon internalization, inhibit replication of a broad array of HIV-1 strains. Remarkably, the anti-HIV-1 activity of semen exosomes is specific to retroviruses because semen exosomes blocked replication of the murine AIDS (mAIDS) virus complex (LP-BM5). However, exosomes from blood had no effect on HIV-1 or LP-BM5 replication. Additionally, semen and blood exosomes had no effect on replication of herpes simplex virus; types 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2). Mechanistic studies indicate that semen exosomes exert a post-entry block on HIV-1 replication by orchestrating deleterious effects on particle-associated reverse transcriptase activity and infectivity.Conclusions These illuminating findings i) improved our knowledge of the cargo of semen exosomes, ii) revealed that semen exosomes possess anti-retroviral activity, and iii) suggest that semen exosome-mediated inhibition of HIV-1 replication may provide novel opportunities for the development of new therapeutics for HIV-1.Retrovirology 11/2014; 11(1):102. · 4.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BST-2 is a virus restriction factor whose expression is principally induced by IFNα through the type I IFN receptor. However, expression of BST-2 is modulated by mitogens, notably the TLR4 agonist - LPS, via mechanisms that are poorly understood. In this study, the role of TLR4 pathway on BST-2 expression was examined. We demonstrate that the TLR4/PI3K signaling pathway regulates both constitutive and LPS-induced BST-2 expression. LPS stimulation induces BST-2 expression in a manner dependent on TLR4/TRIF/IRF3 pathway. Genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of signaling through TLR4, as well as, the deletion of the TRIF and IRF3 genes blunts BST-2 induction by LPS. However, MYD88-/- cells have enhanced BST-2 levels and respond to LPS-mediated induction of BST-2. High level of BST-2 in MYD88 null cells is dependent on IFNβ since antibody-mediated neutralization of IFNβ synthesis results in reduced BST-2 levels in these cells. Similar to the effect of MYD88, inhibition of PI3K activity elevates basal BST-2 level and augments LPS-induced BST-2 expression. Importantly, BST-2 regulation via TLR4 and PI3K is transcriptionally controlled. We discovered that actinomycin D-mediated blocking of gene transcription and inhibition of protein synthesis with cycloheximide result in impairment of BST-2 mRNA expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that activation of TLR4 results in TRIF/IRF3-mediated positive regulation of BST-2 or MYD88/PI3K-directed negative regulation of BST-2. Thus, our findings enlist BST-2 as one of the genes regulated by PI3K downstream of TLR4 and identify the TLR4/PI3K signaling as a novel pathway that controls BST-2 expression.Cellular Signalling 09/2013; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to describe the alterations that HIV-1 induces in antigen-presenting cells (APCs), in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo.Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS 09/2014; 9(5):478-484. · 4.39 Impact Factor