Tobacco use, especially cigarette smoking, is higher than average in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence states that, during every medical encounter, all smokers should be offered smoking cessation counseling, along with approved medications. The Guideline also recognizes PLWHA as a priority population, given the scarcity of research on effective cessation treatments in this group. The scant evidence suggests that conventional treatments, though worthwhile, are not as successful as might be hoped for. The reasons for this are not entirely clear, but may have to do with the complex array of medical and psychosocial factors that complicate their lives. Clinicians should consider re-treatment strategies for those patients who encounter difficulty when quitting smoking with conventional approaches, switching or augmenting treatments as needed to minimize adverse experiences, and to maximize tolerability, adherence, and cessation outcomes.
"Subjecting the patient to the existing best therapeutic approach followed by the secondary and tertiary treatments may be an acceptable regimen but the disadvantage to this schema is that delayed therapeutic responses are not considered and so the most effective treatment (or positive synergistic sequential regimen) may simply be missed over the course or prescriptive effects, where specific symptoms that could be revealed by sequential treatments, may not be uncovered. Another example that Dr. Niaura showed to explain the importance of SMART was the study involving pharmacologic treatments for smoking in HIV positive smokers. Since NRT did not show a very promising response and Chantix was a more efficacious drug, they wanted to test using ATS “what does one do when smokers fail to quit or relapse and what does one do when smokers quit”. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Texas Center for Health Disparities, a National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Center of Excellence, presents an annual conference to discuss prevention, awareness education and ongoing research about health disparities both in Texas and among the national population. The 2013 Texas Conference on Health Disparities brought together experts, in research, patient care and community outreach, on the "Intersection of Smoking, Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and Cancer". Smoking, HIV/AIDS and cancer are three individual areas of public health concern, each with its own set of disparities and risk factors based on race, ethnicity, gender, geography and socio-economic status. Disparities among patient populations, in which these issues are found to be comorbid, provide valuable information on goals for patient care. The conference consisted of three sessions addressing "Comorbidities and Treatment", "Public Health Perspectives", and "Best Practices". This article summarizes the basic science, clinical correlates and public health data presented by the speakers.
Journal of Carcinogenesis 10/2013; 12:18. DOI:10.4103/1477-3163.119388
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Persons living with HIV/AIDS who are current smokers are more likely to develop disease-related adverse health outcomes compared to nonsmokers with HIV/AIDS. However, the impact of smoking cessation on health outcomes such as symptom status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has not yet been assessed within this population. This study examined the effects of changes in smoking status on HIV-related symptom burden and health-related quality of life outcomes in a multiethnic, low-income population of persons living with HIV/AIDS. Patients (n = 95) from a large, inner city HIV/AIDS clinic were enrolled in a smoking cessation trial providing nicotine replacement therapy, counseling, and self-help written materials. Biochemically verified smoking status, length of smoking abstinence, HIV-related symptom burden, and HRQOL were assessed approximately 3-months posttrial enrollment. A series of multiple linear regression models was performed to assess the associations between the smoking status variables and the health outcomes at follow-up while controlling for baseline levels. Length of smoking abstinence was significantly associated (p = 0.02) with HIV-related symptom burden. Specifically, increasing number of consecutive days of smoking abstinence during the 3-month follow-up period was associated with lower levels of HIV-related symptom burden at the time of follow-up. However, 24-hour smoking prevalence was not significantly (p > 0.05) associated with changes in either HIV-related symptom burden or HRQOL. These findings suggest that smoking cessation can significantly improve symptom burden for individuals living with HIV/AIDS. Moreover, these benefits are observable as early as 3 months after quitting and are positively correlated with the length of abstinence.
AIDS PATIENT CARE and STDs 09/2007; 21(9):659-66. DOI:10.1089/apc.2007.0022 · 3.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has markedly improved HIV disease management, and significantly reduced HIV/AIDS-associated morbidity and mortality. Although recent studies suggest a relationship between smoking and suboptimal adherence to ART, a more in-depth understanding of this relationship is needed. We conducted a secondary analysis using data from a randomized controlled smoking cessation trial to investigate the association of nonadherence to ART with potential demographic, psychosocial (perceived stress and depression), and substance use (nicotine dependence, illicit drug use, and alcohol use) variables among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who smoke. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of participants (n=326) was 45.9 years old (SD=7.6). Additionally, the majority were male (72.1%), self-identified as black (76.7%), and reported sexual contact as the mode of HIV acquisition (70%). Unadjusted logistic regression analysis indicated that depression (odds ratio [OR]=1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.00, 1.04), illicit drug use (OR=2.39; 95% CI=1.51, 3.79) and alcohol use (OR=2.86; 95%CI=1.79, 4.57) were associated with nonadherence. Adjusted logistic regression analysis indicated that nicotine dependence (OR=1.13; 95% CI=1.02, 1.25), illicit drug use (OR=2.10; 95% CI=1.27, 3.49), alcohol use (OR=2.50; 95% CI=1.52, 4.12), and age (OR=1.04; 95% CI=1.00, 1.07) were associated with nonadherence. Nicotine dependence, illicit drug use, and alcohol use are potentially formidable barriers to ART adherence among PLWHA who smoke. Future efforts should investigate the complex relationships among these variables to improve adherence particularly among populations confronted with multifaceted health challenges.
AIDS patient care and STDs 05/2012; 26(8):479-85. DOI:10.1089/apc.2012.0070 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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