Integration of HIV/AIDS services with maternal, neonatal and child health, nutrition, and family planning services

Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA. .
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (Impact Factor: 6.03). 09/2012; 9(9):CD010119. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010119
Source: PubMed


The integration of HIV/AIDS and maternal, neonatal, child health and nutrition services (MNCHN), including family planning (FP) is recognized as a key strategy to reduce maternal and child mortality and control the HIV/AIDS epidemic. However, limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of service integration.
To evaluate the impact of integrating MNCHN-FP and HIV/AIDS services on health, behavioral, and economic outcomes and to identify research gaps.
Using the Cochrane Collaboration's validated search strategies for identifying reports of HIV interventions, along with appropriate keywords and MeSH terms, we searched a range of electronic databases, including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EMBASE, MEDLINE (via PubMed), and Web of Science / Web of Social Science. The date range was from 01 January 1990 to 15 October 2010. There were no limits to language.
Included studies were published in peer-reviewed journals, and provided intervention evaluation data (pre-post or multi-arm study design).The interventions described were organizational strategies or change, process modifications or introductions of technologies aimed at integrating MNCHN-FP and HIV/AIDS service delivery.
We identified 10,619 citations from the electronic database searches and 101 citations from hand searching, cross-reference searching and interpersonal communication. After initial screenings for relevance by pairs of authors working independently, a total of 121 full-text articles were obtained for closer examination.
Twenty peer-reviewed articles representing 19 interventions met inclusion criteria. There were no randomized controlled trials. One study utilized a stepped wedge design, while the rest were non-randomized trials, cohort studies, time series studies, cross-sectional studies, serial cross-sectional studies, and before-after studies. It was not possible to perform meta-analysis. Risk of bias was generally high. We found high between-study heterogeneity in terms of intervention types, study objectives, settings and designs, and reported outcomes. Most studies integrated FP with HIV testing (n=7) or HIV care and treatment (n=4). Overall, HIV and MNCHN-FP service integration was found to be feasible across a variety of integration models, settings and target populations. Nearly all studies reported positive post-integration effects on key outcomes including contraceptive use, antiretroviral therapy initiation in pregnancy, HIV testing, and quality of services.
This systematic review's findings show that integrated HIV/AIDS and MNCHN-FP services are feasible to implement and show promise towards improving a variety of health and behavioral outcomes. However, significant evidence gaps remain. Rigorous research comparing outcomes of integrated with non-integrated services, including cost, cost-effectiveness, and health outcomes such as HIV and STI incidence, morbidity and mortality are greatly needed to inform programs and policy.

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    • "Two separate reviews on US home visitation concluded that there were modest benefits at best from home visitation programs [14,15]. Cochrane reviews of home visitation involving disadvantaged mothers [16,17] and disadvantaged teenage mothers [18] found no difference in outcomes on parental or child risk factors. However, home-based interventions delivered by trained professionals with high adherence to model fidelity (such as the Nurse-Family Partnership) show better and more consistent results compared to less rigorous programs [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Current early childhood systems of care are not geared to respond to the complex needs of preschoolers at risk for mental health problems in a timely, coordinated, multidisciplinary, and comprehensive fashion. Evidence-informed policy represents an opportunity for implementing prevention, promotion, and early intervention at the population or at-risk level. Exposure to risk factors as well as the presence of clinical disorders can derail the developmental trajectories of preschoolers, and problems may persist if left untreated. One way to address these multiple research-to-policy gaps are systematic reviews sensitive to context and knowledge user needs, such as the realist review. The realist review is an iterative process between research teams and knowledge users to build mid-level program theories in order to understand which interventions work best for whom and under what context. Methods/Design The realist review employs five ‘iterative’ steps: (1) clarify scope, (2) search for evidence, (3) appraise primary studies and extract data, (4) synthesize the evidence, and (5) disseminate, implement, and evaluate evidence, to answer two research questions: What interventions improve mental health outcomes for preschoolers at risk for socio-emotional difficulties and under what circumstances do they work? and what are the best models of care for integrating mental health interventions within pre-existing early childhood education (ECE) services for at-risk children? Knowledge users and researchers will work together through each stage of the review starting with refining the questions through to decisions regarding program theory building, data extraction, analysis, and design of a policy dissemination plan. The initial questions will guide preliminary literature reviews, but subsequent more focused searches will be informed by knowledge users familiar with local needs and further building of explanatory program theories. Discussion Policy makers want to know what works best for whom, but are faced with a wide and disparate intervention literature for at-risk children. Applying evidence-based standards is a good start, but the chain of implementation between research results and how to match interventions sensitive to local context are ongoing challenges. Trial registration Prospero registration number: CRD42014007301.
    Systematic Reviews 07/2014; 3(1):84. DOI:10.1186/2046-4053-3-84
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    • "The World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) comprehensive strategic approach for PMTCT also includes primary prevention of HIV infection; prevention of unintended pregnancies in HIV-infected women; and a family-centred approach to HIV care [4]. There is also a need to integrate PMTCT into routine maternal, neonatal, child and women’s health services [5]. Several studies have demonstrated the benefits of integration of services, in both the delivery and utilisation of services [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background There is great impetus to achieve elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (eMTCT) by 2015, and part of this is to identify factors to target to achieve the goal. This study thus identified key patient factors for MTCT in a high HIV prevalence setting in Johannesburg, South Africa. Between November 2010 and May 2012, we conducted a case–control study among HIV-infected women with HIV-infected (cases) and uninfected (controls) infants diagnosed around six weeks of age as part of routine, early infant diagnosis. Mothers and infants were identified through registers in six healthcare facilities that provide antenatal, postpartum and HIV care. Structured interviews were conducted with a focus on history of HIV infection, antenatal, intrapartum and immediate postpartum management of the mother-infant pair. Patient-related risk factors for MTCT were identified. Results A total of 77 women with HIV-infected infants and 154 with –uninfected infants were interviewed. Among HIV-infected cases, 13.0% of the women knew their HIV status prior to conception, and 83.1% reported their pregnancies as unplanned. Antenatal antiretroviral coverage was high in the control group – only 1/154 (0.7%) reported receiving no prophylaxis or treatment compared with 17/74 (22.9%) of cases. In multivariate analysis, key patient-related risks for HIV transmission were: unknown HIV status prior to conception (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.6; 95% CI = 2.4 – 18.4; p < 0.001); accessing antenatal care after 20 weeks gestation (AOR = 4.3; 95% CI = 2.0 – 9.3; p < 0.001); less than 12 years of formal education (AOR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.6 – 7.5; p = 0.002); and unplanned pregnancy (AOR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.2 to 6.3; p = 0.022). Mean age at first HIV test was 6.6 weeks (SD = 3.5) for infants who were diagnosed as HIV-infected, and the mean age at antiretroviral treatment initiation was 10.8 weeks (SD = 4.4). HIV-uninfected infants were diagnosed at a mean age of 6.0 weeks (SD = 0.2). Conclusions Undiagnosed maternal HIV infection prior to conception, unplanned pregnancies, delays in accessing antenatal care, and low levels of education were the most significant patient risk factors associated with MTCT. While the emphasis has been on increasing availability and coverage of efficacious antiretroviral regimens, and strengthening health systems within eMTCT initiatives, there is a need to also address patient-related factors if we are to achieve eMTCT goals.
    Globalization and Health 05/2014; 10(1):36. DOI:10.1186/1744-8603-10-36 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    • "Integration of health services not only improves the uptake of services and enhances program efficiency, but also improves health outcomes when compared to separate services [20] [21]. Research is needed, however, to test integration models. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Integrate enhanced family planning (FP) and prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services in order to help HIV-positive Zimbabwean women achieve their desired family size and spacing as well as to maximize maternal and child health. Study Design HIV-positive pregnant women were enrolled into a standard-of-care (SOC, n=33) or intervention (n=65) cohort, based on study entry date, and followed for three months post-partum. The intervention cohort received education sessions aimed at increasing FP use and negotiation power. Both groups received care from nurses with enhanced FP training. Outcomes included FP use, FP knowledge, and HIV disclosure, and were assessed with Fisher’s exact, binomial, and t-tests. Results The intervention cohort reported increased control over condom use (p=0.002), increased knowledge about IUDs (p=0.002), increased relationship power (p=0.01), and increased likelihood of disclosing their HIV status to a partner (p=0.04) and having that partner disclose to them (p=0.04), when compared to the SOC cohort. Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) use in both groups increased from ~ 2% at baseline to > 80% at three months post-partum (p<0.001). Conclusions FP and sexual negotiation skills and knowledge, as well as HIV disclosure, increased significantly in the intervention cohort. LARC uptake increased significantly in both the intervention and SOC cohorts, likely because both groups received care from nurses with enhanced FP training. Successful service integration models are needed to maximize health outcomes in resource-constrained environments; this intervention is such a model that should be replicable in other settings in sub-Saharan Africa and beyond. Implications This study provides a rigorously-evaluated intervention to integrate FP education into ante- and post-natal care for HIV-positive women, and also to train providers on FP. Results suggest that this intervention had significant effects on contraception use and communication with sexual partners. This intervention should be adaptable to other areas.
    Contraception 01/2013; 89(3). DOI:10.1016/j.contraception.2013.11.003 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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