Integration of HIV/AIDS services with maternal, neonatal and child health, nutrition, and family planning services.
ABSTRACT The integration of HIV/AIDS and maternal, neonatal, child health and nutrition services (MNCHN), including family planning (FP) is recognized as a key strategy to reduce maternal and child mortality and control the HIV/AIDS epidemic. However, limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of service integration.
To evaluate the impact of integrating MNCHN-FP and HIV/AIDS services on health, behavioral, and economic outcomes and to identify research gaps.
Using the Cochrane Collaboration's validated search strategies for identifying reports of HIV interventions, along with appropriate keywords and MeSH terms, we searched a range of electronic databases, including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EMBASE, MEDLINE (via PubMed), and Web of Science / Web of Social Science. The date range was from 01 January 1990 to 15 October 2010. There were no limits to language.
Included studies were published in peer-reviewed journals, and provided intervention evaluation data (pre-post or multi-arm study design).The interventions described were organizational strategies or change, process modifications or introductions of technologies aimed at integrating MNCHN-FP and HIV/AIDS service delivery.
We identified 10,619 citations from the electronic database searches and 101 citations from hand searching, cross-reference searching and interpersonal communication. After initial screenings for relevance by pairs of authors working independently, a total of 121 full-text articles were obtained for closer examination.
Twenty peer-reviewed articles representing 19 interventions met inclusion criteria. There were no randomized controlled trials. One study utilized a stepped wedge design, while the rest were non-randomized trials, cohort studies, time series studies, cross-sectional studies, serial cross-sectional studies, and before-after studies. It was not possible to perform meta-analysis. Risk of bias was generally high. We found high between-study heterogeneity in terms of intervention types, study objectives, settings and designs, and reported outcomes. Most studies integrated FP with HIV testing (n=7) or HIV care and treatment (n=4). Overall, HIV and MNCHN-FP service integration was found to be feasible across a variety of integration models, settings and target populations. Nearly all studies reported positive post-integration effects on key outcomes including contraceptive use, antiretroviral therapy initiation in pregnancy, HIV testing, and quality of services.
This systematic review's findings show that integrated HIV/AIDS and MNCHN-FP services are feasible to implement and show promise towards improving a variety of health and behavioral outcomes. However, significant evidence gaps remain. Rigorous research comparing outcomes of integrated with non-integrated services, including cost, cost-effectiveness, and health outcomes such as HIV and STI incidence, morbidity and mortality are greatly needed to inform programs and policy.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine whether integrating family planning services into HIV care is associated with increased use of more effective contraceptive methods (sterilization, intrauterine device, implant, injectable or oral contraceptives). Design: Cluster-randomized trial. Setting: Eighteen public HIV clinics in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Participants: Women aged 18–45 years receiving care at participating HIV clinics; 5682 clinical encounters from baseline period (December 2009–February 2010) and 12 531 encounters from end-line period (July 2011–September 2011, 1 year after site training). Intervention: Twelve sites were randomized to integrate family planning services into the HIV clinic, whereas six clinics were controls where clients desiring contraception were referred to family planning clinics at the same facility. Main outcome measures: Increase in use of more effective contraceptive methods between baseline and end-line periods. Pregnancy rates during the follow-up year (October 2010–September 2011) were also compared. Results: Women seen at integrated sites were significantly more likely to use more effective contraceptive methods at the end of the study [increased from 16.7 to 36.6% at integrated sites, compared to increase from 21.1 to 29.8% at controls; odds ratio (OR) 1.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24–2.63]. Condom use decreased non-significantly at intervention sites compared to controls (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.35–1.19). No difference was observed in incident pregnancy in the first year after integration comparing intervention to control sites (incidence rate ratio 0.90; 95% CI 0.68–1.20). Conclusions: Integration of family planning services into HIV care clinics increased use of more effective contraceptive methods with a non-significant reduction in condom use. Although no significant reduction in pregnancy incidence was observed during the study, 1 year may be too short a period of observation for this outcome.AIDS 01/2013; 27:S77-S85. · 6.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: HIV makes a significant contribution to maternal mortality, and women living in sub-Saharan Africa are most affected. International commitments to eliminate preventable maternal mortality and reduce HIV-related deaths among pregnant and postpartum women by 50% will not be achieved without a better understanding of the links between HIV and poor maternal health outcomes and improved health services for the care of women living with HIV (WLWH) during pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum. This article summarizes priorities for research and evaluation identified through consultation with 30 international researchers and policymakers with experience in maternal health and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa and a review of the published literature. Priorities for improving the evidence about effective interventions to reduce maternal mortality and improve maternal health among WLWH include better quality data about causes of maternal death among WLWH, enhanced and harmonized program monitoring, and research and evaluation that contributes to improving: (1) clinical management of pregnant and postpartum WLWH, including assessment of the impact of expanded antiretroviral therapy on maternal mortality and morbidity, (2) integrated service delivery models, and (3) interventions to create an enabling social environment for women to begin and remain in care. As the global community evaluates progress and prepares for new maternal mortality and HIV targets, addressing the needs of WLWH must be a priority now and after 2015. Research and evaluation on maternal health and HIV can increase collaboration on these 2 global priorities, strengthen political constituencies and communities of practice, and accelerate progress toward achievement of goals in both areas.JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 12/2014; 67 Suppl 4:S250-8. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Both sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services and HIV programs in sub-Saharan Africa are typically delivered vertically, operating parallel to national health systems. The objective of this study was to map the evidence on national and international strategies for integration of SRH and HIV services in sub-Saharan Africa and to develop a research agenda for future health systems integration. We examined the literature on national and international strategies to integrate SRH and HIV services using a scoping study methodology. Current policy frameworks, national HIV strategies and research, and gray literature on integration were mapped. Five countries in sub-Saharan Africa with experience of integrating SRH and HIV services were purposively sampled for detailed thematic analysis, according to the health systems functions of governance, policy and planning, financing, health workforce organization, service organization, and monitoring and evaluation. The major international health policies and donor guidance now support integration. Most integration research has focused on linkages of SRH and HIV front-line services. Yet, the common problems with implementation are related to delayed or incomplete integration of higher level health systems functions: lack of coordinated leadership and unified national integration policies; separate financing streams for SRH and HIV services and inadequate health worker training, supervision and retention. Rigorous health systems research on the integration of SRH and HIV services is urgently needed. Priority research areas include integration impact, performance, and economic evaluation to inform the planning, financing, and coordination of integrated service delivery.JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 12/2014; 67 Suppl 4:S259-70. · 4.39 Impact Factor