Article

Glucose, Nitrogen, and Phosphate Repletion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Common Transcriptional Responses to Different Nutrient Signals

Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705.
G3-Genes Genomes Genetics (Impact Factor: 2.51). 09/2012; 2(9):1003-17. DOI: 10.1534/g3.112.002808
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Saccharomyces cerevisiae are able to control growth in response to changes in nutrient availability. The limitation for single macronutrients, including nitrogen (N) and phosphate (P), produces stable arrest in G1/G0. Restoration of the limiting nutrient quickly restores growth. It has been shown that glucose (G) depletion/repletion very rapidly alters the levels of more than 2000 transcripts by at least 2-fold, a large portion of which are involved with either protein production in growth or stress responses in starvation. Although the signals generated by G, N, and P are thought to be quite distinct, we tested the hypothesis that depletion and repletion of any of these three nutrients would affect a common core set of genes as part of a generalized response to conditions that promote growth and quiescence. We found that the response to depletion of G, N, or P produced similar quiescent states with largely similar transcriptomes. As we predicted, repletion of each of the nutrients G, N, or P induced a large (501) common core set of genes and repressed a large (616) common gene set. Each nutrient also produced nutrient-specific transcript changes. The transcriptional responses to each of the three nutrients depended on cAMP and, to a lesser extent, the TOR pathway. All three nutrients stimulated cAMP production within minutes of repletion, and artificially increasing cAMP levels was sufficient to replicate much of the core transcriptional response. The recently identified transceptors Gap1, Mep1, Mep2, and Mep3, as well as Pho84, all played some role in the core transcriptional responses to N or P. As expected, we found some evidence of cross talk between nutrient signals, yet each nutrient sends distinct signals.

0 Followers
 · 
62 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ydr374c (Pho92) contains a YTH domain in its C-terminal region and is a human YTHDF2 homologue. Previously, we reported that Pho92 regulates phosphate metabolism by regulating PHO4 mRNA stability. In this study, we found that growth of the ∆pho92 strain on SG media was slower than that of the wild type and that PHO92 expression was up-regulated by non-fermentable carbon sources, such as ethanol and glycerol, but not by fermentable carbon sources. Furthermore, two conserved Gcr1-binding regions were identified in the upstream, untranslated region of PHO92. Gcr1 is an important factor involved in the coordinated regulation of glycolytic gene expression. Mutation of two Gcr1-binding sites of the PHO92 upstream region resulted in a growth defect on SD media. Finally, mutagenesis of the Gcr1-binding sites of the PHO92 upstream region and deletion of GCR1 resulted in up-regulation of PHO92, and this resulted from inhibition of PHO4 mRNA degradation. Based on these results, we suggest that Gcr1 regulates the expression of PHO92, and Pho92 is involved in glucose metabolism.
    Current Genetics 05/2014; 60(4). DOI:10.1007/s00294-014-0430-5 · 1.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris has proved to be especially useful for production of various heterologous proteins. In biotechnology it is very important to maintain the balance between high levels of heterologous gene expression and cell viability. Decisive understanding of gene regulation mechanisms is essential for reaching this goal. In this study, we investigated the effect of different nitrogen sources and phosphate concentration in media on methanol utilization. It was shown that expression levels of main genes, which are involved in methanol utilization (MUT genes) and in functioning of peroxisomes (PEX genes), are maximal when ammonium sulphate is used as a nitrogen source. Expression of these genes is decreased in media with poor nitrogen sources, such as proline. Addition of rapamycin to the media completely removed repression of AOX1 promoter in media with proline, which allows proposing that Tor-kinase is involved in establishing of nitrogen regulation of this gene. It was also shown that MUT genes expression levels get higher, when the phosphate concentration in media is increased.
    12/2014; 2014:743615. DOI:10.1155/2014/743615
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, intracellular phosphate levels are maintained by the PHO pathway, activation of which is assayed by increased phosphatase activity. The PHO pathway of Schizosaccharomyces pombe upregulates phosphatase activity (encoded by pho1 (+)) during low extracellular phosphate levels, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. We utilized an alternate repressor of pho1 (+) expression (adenine supplementation) along with epistasis analysis to develop a model of how S. pombe PHO pathway components interact. Analyzing Pho1 activity in S. pombe PHO pathway deletion mutants during adenine starvation, we observed most mutants with a phosphatase defect in phosphate starvation also had a defect in adenine starvation. Pho7, a transcription factor in the PHO pathway, is necessary for an adenine starvation-mediated increase in Pho1 activity. Comparing adenine starvation to phosphate starvation, there are differences in the degree to which individual mutants regulate the two responses. Through epistasis studies, we identified two positive regulatory arms and one repressive arm of the PHO pathway. PKA activation is a positive regulator of Pho1 activity under both environmental conditions and is critical for transducing adenine concentrations in the cell. The synthesis of IP7 also appears critical for the induction of Pho1 activity during adenine starvation, but IP7 is not critical during phosphate starvation, which differs from S. cerevisiae. Finally, Csk1 is critical for repression of pho1 (+) expression during phosphate starvation. We believe all of these regulatory arms converge to increase transcription of pho1 (+) and some of the regulation acts through pho7 (+).
    Current Genetics 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00294-014-0466-6 · 1.71 Impact Factor

Preview (5 Sources)

Download
0 Downloads
Available from