Randomized controlled trial of clinical pharmacy management of patients with type 2 diabetes in an outpatient diabetes clinic in jordan.

AIZaytoonah University of Jordan, Pharmacy, P.O. Box 130, Amman, Jordan 11733. .
Journal of managed care pharmacy: JMCP (Impact Factor: 2.68). 09/2012; 18(7):516-26. DOI: 10.1136/ejhpharm-2013-000276.576
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Glycemic goals (hemoglobin A1c less than  7%) are often not achieved in patients with type 2 diabetes despite the availability of many effective treatments and the documented benefits of glycemic control in the reduction of long-term microvascular and macrovascular complications. Several studies have established the important positive effects of pharmacist-led management on achieving glycemic control and other clinical outcomes in patients with diabetes. Diabetes prevalence and mortality are increasing rapidly in Jordan. Nevertheless, clinical pharmacists in Jordan do not typically provide pharmaceutical care; instead, the principal responsibilities of pharmacists in Jordan are dispensing and marketing of medical products to physicians.
To assess the primary clinical outcome of glycemic control (A1c) and secondary outcomes, including blood pressure, lipid values, self-reported medication adherence, and self-care activities for patients with type 2 diabetes in an outpatient diabetes clinic randomly assigned to either usual care or a pharmacist-led pharmaceutical care intervention program.
Patients with type 2 diabetes attending an outpatient diabetes clinic of a large teaching hospital were recruited over a 4-month period from January through April 2011 and randomly assigned to intervention and usual care groups using the Minim software technique. The intervention group at baseline received face-to-face objective-directed education from a clinical pharmacist about type 2 diabetes, prescription medications, and necessary lifestyle changes, followed by 8 weekly telephone follow-up calls to discuss and review the prescribed treatment plan and to resolve any patient concerns. The primary outcome measure was glycemic control (A1c), and secondary measures included systolic and diastolic blood pressure, complete lipid profile (i.e., total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], serum triglycerides), and self-reported medication adherence (4-item Morisky Scale) and self-care activities (Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities questionnaire). Data were collected at baseline and at 6 months follow-up. Changes from baseline to follow-up were calculated for biomarker values, and between-group differences in the change amounts were tested using the t test for independent samples. A P value of less than  0.05 was considered 
statistically significant.
A total of 77 of 85 patients (90.6%) randomly assigned to the intervention group and 79 of 86 patients (91.9%) assigned to usual care had baseline and 6-month follow-up values. Compared with baseline values, patients in the intervention group had a mean reduction of 0.8% in A1c versus a mean increase of 0.1% from baseline in the usual care group (P = 0.019). The intervention group compared with the usual care group had small but statistically significant improvements in the secondary measures of fasting blood glucose, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, serum triglycerides, self-reported medication adherence, and self-care activities. Between-group differences in changes in the secondary measures of HDL-C and body mass index were not significant.
Patients with type 2 diabetes who received pharmacist-led pharmaceutical care in an outpatient diabetes clinic experienced reduction in A1c at 6 months compared with essentially no change in the usual care group. Six of 8 secondary biomarkers were improved in the intervention group compared with usual care.

1 Follower
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Medication adherence is associated with improved outcomes in diabetes. Interventions have been established to help improve medication adherence; however, the most effective interventions in patients with Type 2 diabetes remain unclear. The goal of this study was to distinguish whether interventions were effective and identify areas for future research.
    01/2014; 4(1):29-48. DOI:10.2217/dmt.13.62
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Non-adherence to long-term therapy for chronic illnesses is considered the major reason why patients fail to reach their clinical goals, resulting in suboptimal health outcomes, death, and extra costs on the health care systems. Knowledge about the disease and prescription medications, an understanding of the reason the medication is needed, and good expectations or attitudes toward treatment, all contribute to a better medication-taking behavior and are associated with higher rates of adherence. Objective This study examines the relationship between knowledge and adherence of patients receiving long-term therapy for one or more chronic illnesses in Jordan. Settings The study was conducted in the out-patient clinics of two Jordanian hospitals (The University of Jordan Hospital and Jordan Hospital). Methods This was a cross-sectional study that included 902 patients. The correlation between patients' knowledge about their chronic medications and adherence was assessed. Effects of several sociodemographic characteristics were investigated in regard to knowledge and adherence. Main outcome measures Knowledge was assessed by a modified version of the McPherson index, and the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale was used to assess medication adherence. Results A significant correlation was found between patients' knowledge and their adherence to medications (r = 0.357, p < 0.001). Most of the participants had low adherence. Younger age, higher education levels, high income, fewer medications and diseases were significant predictors of higher knowledge levels. Knowledgeable patients were found to be twice as likely to have moderate-to-high adherence as their unknowledgeable counterparts. Similarly, high income and higher education were associated with higher adherence scores. Conclusion Forgetfulness and aversion toward medications were the most common barriers to medication adherence. This implicates that clinicians and health care policy makers should direct their effort toward two main strategies to improve adherence increasing awareness and education of effective ways to remind patients about their medications.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the impact of a clinical pharmacy program on health outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing insulin therapy at a teaching hospital in Brazil. A randomized controlled trial with a 6-month follow-up period was performed in 70 adults, aged 45 years or older, with type 2 diabetes who were taking insulin and who had an HbA1c level ≥8%. Patients in the control group (CG) (n = 36) received standard care, patients in the intervention group (IG) (n = 34) received an individualized pharmacotherapeutic care plan and diabetes education. The primary outcome measure was change in HbA1c. Secondary outcomes included diabetes and medication knowledge, adherence to medication, insulin injection and home blood glucose monitoring techniques and diabetes-related quality of life. Outcomes were evaluated at baseline and 6 months using questionnaires. Diabetes knowledge, medication knowledge, adherence to medication and correct insulin injection and home blood glucose monitoring techniques significantly improved in the intervention group but remained unchanged in the control group. At the end of the study, mean HbA1c values in the control group remained unchanged but were significantly reduced in the intervention group. Diabetes-related quality of life significantly improved in the intervention group but worsened significantly in the control group. The program improved health outcomes and resulted in better glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing insulin therapy.
    Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil) 02/2015; 70(2):102-6. DOI:10.6061/clinics/2015(02)06 · 1.42 Impact Factor

Full-text (3 Sources)

Available from
May 27, 2014