Psychotropic Drugs and Risk of Motor Vehicle Accidents: a Population-based Case-Control Study.

Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Lin-Kou & Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 3.88). 09/2012; 75(4). DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04410.x
Source: PubMed


To examine comprehensively the relationship between exposure to four classes of psychotropic drugs including antipsychotics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines (BZDs) and Z-drugs, and motor vehicle accidents (MVAs).

The authors conducted a matched case-control study of 5183 subjects with MVAs and 31 093 matched controls, identified from the claims records of outpatient service visits during the period from 2000 to 2009. Inclusion criteria were defined as subjects aged equal to or more than 18 years and involved in MVAs. Conditional logistic regressions with covariates adjustment (including urbanity, psychiatric and non-psychiatric outpatient visits and Charlson comorbidity score) were applied to examine the effect of four classes of psychotropic drugs on MVAs.

Significant increased risk of MVAs was found in subjects taking antidepressants within 1 month (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34, 2.22), 1 week (AOR 1.71, 95% CI 1.29, 2.26), and 1 day (AOR 1.70, 95% CI 1.26, 2.29) before MVAs occurred. Similar results were observed in subjects taking benzodiazepines (BZDs) (AOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.38, 1.75 for 1 month; AOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.43, 1.88 for 1 week, and AOR 1.62, 95% CI 1.39, 1.88 for 1 day) and Z-drugs (AOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.14, 1.76 for 1 month, AOR 1.37, 95% CI 1.06, 1.75 for 1 week, AOR 1.34, 95% CI 1.03, 1.75 for 1 day), but not antipsychotics. Moreover, significant dose effects of antidepressants (equal to or more than 0.6-1.0 DDD), BZDs (equal to or more than 0.1-0.5 DDD) and Z-drugs (more than 1 DDD) were observed, respectively, on the risk of experiencing an MVA.

Taken together, subjects taking antidepressants, BZDs and Z-drugs, separately, should be particularly cautioned for their increasing risk of MVAs.

Download full-text


Available from: Chia-Ming Chang, Nov 22, 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of repeated treatments with the sedative antidepressants mirtazapine and trazodone on driving performance and cognitive function. Nineteen healthy men received continuous nocturnal doses of 15-mg mirtazapine , 25-mg trazodone, or placebo for 8 days in a double-blinded, three-way crossover trial. Subjects were asked to perform three driving tasks (road tracking, car following, and harsh braking) using a driving simulator and cognitive tasks (the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Continuous Performance Test, and N-back Test) at baseline and on Days 2 and 9. Stanford Sleepiness Scale scores were also assessed. Mirtazapine significantly increased the standard deviation of lateral position in the road-tracking task as compared with trazodone on Day 2. Mirtazapine significantly increased Stanford Sleepiness Scale scores as compared with trazodone and placebo. For the remaining tasks, no significant effects of treatment were observed. Acute treatment of mirtazapine impaired road-tracking performance and increased sleepiness, but sedative effects disappeared under repeated administrations. Trazodone did not affect driving performance or cognitive function under acute or repeated administrations. Both initial sedative effects and pharmacological profiles should be taken into consideration when using sedative antidepressants. Copyright
    Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental 05/2013; 28(3). DOI:10.1002/hup.2321 · 2.19 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) are a potential treatment for insomnia that function by blocking both the orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors. The objective of the current study was to further confirm the impact of therapeutic mechanisms targeting insomnia on locomotor coordination and ethanol interaction using DORAs and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor modulators of distinct chemical structure and pharmacological properties in the context of sleep-promoting potential. The current study compared rat motor co-ordination after administration of DORAs, DORA-12 and almorexant, and GABA-A receptor modulators, zolpidem, eszopiclone, and diazepam, alone or each in combination with ethanol. Motor performance was assessed by measuring time spent walking on a rotarod apparatus. Zolpidem, eszopiclone and diazepam [0.3-30 mg/kg administered orally (PO)] impaired rotarod performance in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, all three GABA-A receptor modulators potentiated ethanol- (0.25-1.5 g/kg) induced impairment on the rotarod. By contrast, neither DORA-12 (10-100 mg/kg, PO) nor almorexant (30-300 mg/kg, PO) impaired motor performance alone or in combination with ethanol. In addition, distinct differences in sleep architecture were observed between ethanol, GABA-A receptor modulators (zolpidem, eszopiclone, and diazepam) and DORA-12 in electroencephalogram studies in rats. These findings provide further evidence that orexin receptor antagonists have an improved motor side-effect profile compared with currently available sleep-promoting agents based on preclinical data and strengthen the rationale for further evaluation of these agents in clinical development.
    Frontiers in Neuroscience 12/2013; 7(7):254. DOI:10.3389/fnins.2013.00254 · 3.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Despite their favourable toxicology profile, benzodiazepines and the related Z-drugs (zopiclone, zolpidem and zaleplon) have been associated with physiological tolerance, dependence and addiction. Evidence of harm (e.g., falls, motor vehicle collisions and cognitive disturbances) has been reported in older populations. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between users' characteristics and the use of benzodiazepines and Z-drugs in Manitoba over a 16-year period. Methods: This time-series analysis was based on prescription data from Apr. 1, 1996, to Mar. 31, 2012, obtained from the Drug Product Information Network database of Manitoba. We obtained sociodemographic information on benzodiazepine and Z-drug users from the Population Registry and determined changes in utilization rates over time using generalized estimating equations. Results: Overall, the prevalence of benzodiazepine use remained stable at about 61.0 per 1000 population between 1996/97 and 2011/12; however, the prevalence of Z-drug use increased steadily from 10.9 to 37.0 per 1000 over the same period. In older people (≥ 65 years), the incidence of benzodiazepine use decreased from 55.5 to 30.3 users per 1000, whereas the incidence of Z-drug use increased from 7.3 to 20.3 users per 1000 over the study period. Among those 18-64 years of age, the incidence of benzodiazepine use decreased from 30.1 to 27.6 users per 1000, but the increase in incidence of Z-drug use was more than 2-fold. The youngest population (≤ 17 years) showed the lowest rates of use of these drugs. The highest rates of use were observed among older women and the low-income population. Interpretation: Over the study period, benzodiazepines have been prescribed less frequently to older patients in Manitoba; however, zopiclone prescribing has continued to increase for all age groups. The reasons for this increase remain to be determined.
    10/2014; DOI:10.9778/cmajo.20130076
Show more