Bone flap resorption: Risk factors for the development of a long-term complication following cranioplasty after decompressive craniectomy.
ABSTRACT Aseptic bone flap resorption (BFR) is a known long-term complication after cranioplasty (CP). We analyzed our institutional data in order to identify risk factors for BFR. From October 1999 to April 2012, 254 patients underwent CP after decompressive craniectomy (DC) at our institution and had a long-term follow-up period of more than 1 year after CP (range 12-146 months). Overall, BFR occurred in 10 of 254 patients as long-term complication after CP (4%). BFR developed more often in patients aged ≤ 18 years (p=0.008), in patients who previously underwent DC due to traumatic brain injury (p=0.04), and in patients with multiple fractures within the reinserted bone flap (p=0.002). Furthermore, BFR developed significantly more often in patients who underwent cranioplasty ≤ 2 months after DC (p=0.008), as well as in patients with wound healing disturbance or abscess as an early complication after the CP procedure (p=0.01). The multivariate analysis of the present data identified the presence of multiple fractures within the bone flap (p=0.002, OR 10.3, 95% CI 2.4-43.8), wound infection after CP (p=0.003, OR 12.3, 95% CI 2.3-65.3), and cranioplasty performed ≤ 2 months after DC (p=0.01, OR 6.3, 95% CI 1.5-26.3) as independent risk factors for the development of BFR after CP in a large series with long term follow-up. This might influence future surgical decision making, especially in patients fulfilling high risk criteria for developing BFR.
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ABSTRACT: Renewed interest has developed in decompressive craniectomy, and improved survival is shown when this treatment is used after malignant middle cerebral artery infarction. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and possible risk factors for developing surgical site infection (SSI) after delayed cranioplasty using autologous, cryopreserved bone. This retrospective study included 74 consecutive patients treated with decompressive craniectomy during the time period May 1998 to October 2010 for various non-traumatic conditions causing increased intracranial pressure due to brain swelling. Complications were registered and patient data was analyzed in a search for predictive factors. Fifty out of the 74 patients (67.6 %) survived and underwent delayed cranioplasty. Of these, 47 were eligible for analysis. Six patients (12.8 %) developed SSI following the replacement of autologous cryopreserved bone, whereas bone resorption occurred in two patients (4.3 %). No factors predicted a statistically significant rate of SSI, however, prolonged procedural time and cardiovascular comorbidity tended to increase the risk of SSI. SSI and bone flap resorption are the most frequent complications associated with the reimplantation of autologous cryopreserved bone after decompressive craniectomy. Prolonged procedural time and cardiovascular comorbidity tend to increase the risk of SSI.Acta Neurochirurgica 02/2014; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Intraoperatively fabricated polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) implants based on computer-designed moulds were used to improve cosmetic results after hard tissue replacement. To assess the implant's cosmetic and functional results we performed both subjective and objective assessments. This retrospective analysis was performed using a cohort of 28 patients who received PMMA implants between February 2009 and March 2012. The cosmetic and functional results were assessed using a patient questionnaire. Furthermore an objective volumetric subtraction score (0-100) was applied and implant thickness, as well as gaps and tiers, were measured. Patients mainly judged their cosmetic result as "good". Two of the 28 patients found their cosmetic result unfavourable. The functional result and stability was mainly judged to be good. Measurements of implant thickness showed a very high correlation with the thickness of the contralateral bone. Volumetric subtraction led to a median quality of 80 on a scale from 0 to 100. Median gaps around the margins of the implant were 1.5 mm parietally, 1.7 mm frontally and 3.5 mm fronto-orbitally, and median tiers were 1.2 mm, 0 mm and 0 mm respectively. The overall rate of surgical revisions was 10.7 % (three patients). Two patients suffered from wound healing disturbances (7.1 %). The overall complication rate was comparable to other reports in the literature. Implantation of intraoperatively fabricated patient-specific moulded implants is a cost-effective and safe technique leading to good clinical results with a low complication rate.Acta Neurochirurgica 01/2014; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The number of patients who need cranioplasty after decompressive craniectomy has increased. In most cases, autologous bone flaps are used for cranioplasty, and there have been reports of the complication of bone flap resorption. Based on these facts, we analysed patients who underwent cranioplasty in our institution to learn about potential risk factors of cranioplasty. We performed a retrospective study and analysed 58 patients who underwent cranioplasty between 2006 and 2013. We found that patients with a defect size >120cm(2) whose reimplantation was delayed tended to have a risk of bone flap resorption. Patients with delayed reimplantation and a defect size >120cm(2) show a tendency of aseptic bone flap resorption. In these cases, a patient-specific implant (PSI) could be the first choice material for this procedure to reduce the rate of this complication.Clinical neurology and neurosurgery 05/2014; 120:64-7. · 1.30 Impact Factor