All-cause and liver-related mortality in hepatitis C infected drug users followed for 33 years: A controlled study.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND & AIMS: The course of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) in injecting drug users (IDUs) has not been well described. The aim of this study was to compare long-term all-cause and liver-related mortality among anti-HCV positive IDUs with and without persisting HCV infection. METHODS: A retrospective-prospective controlled cohort design was applied. All IDUs admitted to resident drug treatment (1970-1984) and with available stored sera were screened for anti-HCV antibody. Anti-HCV positive individuals were further tested for the presence of HCV RNA. All-cause and liver-related mortality was compared between HCV RNA positive (n=328) and HCV RNA negative individuals (n=195). The observation was accomplished through register linkage to national registers. Mean observation time was 33years. RESULTS: All-cause mortality rate was 1.85 (95% CI 1.62-2.11) per 100 person-years, male 2.11 (95% CI 1.84-2.46), female 1.39 (95% CI 1.07-1.79). Mortality rates were not influenced by persisting HCV infection. Main causes of death were intoxications (45.0%), suicide (9.1%), and accidents (8.2%). Liver disease was the cause of death in 7.5% of deaths among HCV RNA positive subjects. Five of 13 deaths among male IDUs with persisting HCV infection occurring after the age of 50 years were caused by liver disease. CONCLUSIONS: The all-cause mortality in IDUs is high and with no difference between HCV RNA positive and HCV RNA negative individuals, the first three decades after HCV transmission. However, among IDUs with chronic HCV infection who have survived until 50years of age, HCV infection emerges as the main cause of death.
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ABSTRACT: In the era of Directly Acting anti HCV Antivirals treatment of hepatitis C is successful in the majority of persons treated. However, treatment of persons with HIV or who inject drugs remains challenging because of special issues: drug–drug interactions with antiretroviral, psychiatric and drug substitution therapies, treatment adherence, impact of treatment on HIV disease course or on risk of bacterial infections. Sofosbuvir induced sustained virologic response in 91% of 23 HIV/HCV coinfected persons treated in combination with ribavirin and pegylated interferon, in 83% of 497 treated in combination with ribavirin and in all 50 patients infected with HCV GT1 treated in combination with ledipasvir and ribavirin. The rates of efficacy in HCV–HIV coinfected were almost the same as those observed in HCV monoinfected suggesting that the efficacy of sofosbuvir is not reduced by HIV coinfection. There are no data on the efficacy of sofosbuvir in injection drugs users. The pangenotypic activity, the high barrier to resistance, the modest potential for drug–drug interactions makes sofosbuvir a reference drug for the treatment of these two special populations.Digestive and Liver Disease 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.dld.2014.09.027 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To describe all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a cohort of people who had ever injected drugs (PWID) with a low prevalence of HIV over 20-30 years. Using a retrospective study design, identifying data from a cohort of PWID recruited between 1982 and 1993 through in-patient drug treatment services were linked to National Records for Scotland deaths data using probabilistic record linkage. We report all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates; standardized mortality ratios (SMR) across time, gender and age were estimated. Among 456 PWID, 139 (30.5%) died over 9024 person-years (PY) of follow-up. Mortality within the cohort was almost nine times higher than the general population, and remained elevated across all age groups. The greatest excess mortality rate was in the youngest age group, who were 15-24 years of age (SMR 31.6, 95% CI 21.2-47.1). Drug-related deaths declined over time and mortality was significantly higher among HIV positive participants. Although SMRs declined with follow-up, the SMR of the oldest age group (45-60) was 4.5 (95% CI 3.0-6.9). There were no significant differences in all-cause mortality rates between participants who were 25 years and older at cohort entry compared to younger participants. Mortality rates remained higher than the general population across all age groups. Screening services that identify a history of injecting drug use may be an opportunity to address risk factors faced by an ageing population of PWID and potentially have implications for future health care planning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Drug and Alcohol Dependence 11/2014; 147. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.11.008 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: While HIV/AIDS remains an important cause of death among people who inject drugs (PWID), the potential mortality burden attributable to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among this population is of increasing concern. Therefore, we sought to identify trends in and predictors of liver-related mortality among PWID.Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2014; 17(1):19296. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.1.19296 · 4.21 Impact Factor