An update on vaccines for tuberculosis - there is more to it than just waning of BCG efficacy with time.
ABSTRACT Introduction: Apart from better diagnostics and new anti-microbial drugs, an effective vaccine for tuberculosis is urgently needed to halt this poverty-related disease, afflicting millions of people worldwide. Areas covered: After a general introduction on the global threat of tuberculosis, the pros and cons of the existing M. bovis BCG vaccine are discussed. As the correlates of protection against tuberculosis remain largely unknown, new findings in biomarker research are described. Next, an update on the ongoing Phase I and Phase II clinical trials is given. Finally, some of the most promising novel pre-clinical developments using live attenuated vaccines, sub-unit vaccines, prime-boost strategies, and new vaccination routes are discussed. The field has made considerable progress and 12 vaccine candidates have now actually entered Phase I or Phase IIa and IIb clinical trials. Expert opinion: It is argued that the variable protection conferred by the existing BCG vaccine against reactivation of latent TB is caused not only by waning of its efficacy with time but also by its weak induction of MHC class I restricted responses. Prime-boost strategies based on the actual BCG vaccine may not be sufficient to overcome this hurdle. The use of plasmid DNA vaccination might offer a solution.
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ABSTRACT: Standardization of immunophenotyping procedures has become a high priority. We have developed a suite of whole-blood, syringe-based assay systems that can be used to reproducibly assess induced innate or adaptive immune responses. By eliminating preanalytical errors associated with immune monitoring, we have defined the protein signatures induced by (1) medically relevant bacteria, fungi, and viruses; (2) agonists specific for defined host sensors; (3) clinically employed cytokines; and (4) activators of T cell immunity. Our results provide an initial assessment of healthy donor reference values for induced cytokines and chemokines and we report the failure to release interleukin-1α as a common immunological phenotype. The observed naturally occurring variation of the immune response may help to explain differential susceptibility to disease or response to therapeutic intervention. The implementation of a general solution for assessment of functional immune responses will help support harmonization of clinical studies and data sharing.Immunity 03/2014; 40(3):436-50. DOI:10.1016/j.immuni.2014.03.002 · 19.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium ´habana´ was isolated in Cuba in 1971. Later, was demonstrated its protection capacity in mycobacterial infection. Here we determined the level of virulence, immunogenicity and the efficacy of three different M. ´habana´ strains as attenuated live vaccines. Intratracheal infection of BALB/c mice with high dose M. ´habana´ TMC 5135 or IPK-337 strains permitted 100% survival and limited tissue damage. Mice infected with M. ´habana´ IPK-220 showed lower attenuation, so it was discarded for the vaccination experiments. Strains IPK-337 and TMC 5135 were used as subcutaneous vaccine and compared with BCG. Nude mice vaccinated with strain 5135 showed longer but non-significant survival than BCG vaccinated animals. Cell suspensions from M. habana vaccinated mice produced higher IFNγ after stimulation with mycobacterial antigens than BCG recipients. After four months of challenge with M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv, mice vaccinated with BCG substrain Phipps or strain TMC 5135 showed total survival, while 60% survival was exhibited by animals vaccinated with M. ´habana´ IPK-337. Both M. ´habana´ strains do not prevent the infection with M. tuberculosis but avoided the progression of the experimental disease; strain TMC5135 showed similar level of protection than BCG.Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland) 01/2013; 94(1). DOI:10.1016/j.tube.2013.08.011 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pulmonary vaccination is a promising route for immunization against tuberculosis because the lung is the natural site of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Yet, adjuvants with a suitable safety profile need to be found to enhance mucosal immunity to recombinant antigens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunogenicity, the safety and the protective efficacy of a subunit vaccine composed of the immunodominant mycolyl-transferase antigen 85A (Ag85A) and one of three powerful mucosal adjuvants: the oligodeoxynucleotide containing unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine motifs (CpG), the monophosphoryl lipid A of Salmonella minnesota (MPLA) or the B subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LTB). BALB/c mice were vaccinated in the deep lungs. Our results showed that lung administration of these adjuvants could specifically induce different types of T cell immunity. Both CpG and MPLA induced a Th-1 type immune response with significant antigen-specific IFN-γ production by spleen mononuclear cells in vitro and a tendency of increased IFN-γ in the lungs. Moreover, MPLA triggered a Th-17 response reflected by high IL-17A levels in the spleen and lungs. By contrast, LTB promoted a Th-2 biased immune response, with a production of IL-5 but not IFN-γ by spleen mononuclear cells in vitro. CpG did not induce inflammation in the lungs while LTB and MPLA showed a transient inflammation including a neutrophil influx one day after pulmonary administration. Pulmonary vaccination with Ag85A without or with MPLA or LTB tended to decrease bacterial counts in the spleen and lungs following a virulent challenge with M. tuberculosis H37Rv. In conclusion, CpG and MPLA were found to be potential adjuvants for pulmonary vaccination against tuberculosis, providing Th-1 and Th-17 immune responses and a good safety profile.PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e63344. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0063344 · 3.53 Impact Factor