Two simple clinical tests for predicting onset of medial tibial stress syndrome: shin palpation test and shin oedema test
ABSTRACT To examine the relationship between two clinical test results and future diagnosis of (Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome) MTSS in personnel at a military trainee establishment.
Data from a preparticipation musculoskeletal screening test performed on 384 Australian Defence Force Academy Officer Cadets were compared against 693 injuries reported by 326 of the Officer Cadets in the following 16 months. Data were held in an Injury Surveillance database and analysed using χ2 and Fisher's Exact tests, and Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve analysis.
Diagnosis of MTSS, confirmed by an independent blinded health practitioner.
Both the palpation and oedema clinical tests were each found to be significant predictors for later onset of MTSS. Specifically: Shin palpation test OR 4.63, 95% CI 2.5 to 8.5, Positive Likelihood Ratio 3.38, Negative Likelihood Ratio 0.732, Pearson χ2 p<0.001; Shin oedema test OR 76.1 95% CI 9.6 to 602.7, Positive Likelihood Ratio 7.26, Negative Likelihood Ratio 0.095, Fisher's Exact p<0.001; Combined Shin Palpation Test and Shin Oedema Test Positive Likelihood Ratio 7.94, Negative Likelihood Ratio <0.001, Fisher's Exact p<0.001. Female gender was found to be an independent risk factor (OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.66 to 5.31, Positive Likelihood Ratio 2.09, Negative Likelihood Ratio 0.703, Pearson χ2 p<0.001) for developing MTSS.
The tests for MTSS employed here are components of a normal clinical examination used to diagnose MTSS. This paper confirms that these tests and female gender can also be confidently applied in predicting those in an asymptomatic population who are at greater risk of developing MTSS symptoms with activity at some point in the future.
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Pressure algometry (PA) may provide an objective and standardised tool in assessing palpation pain over the tibia. The purpose of this study was to analyse the intra-rater repeatability of PA and to determine whether tibial tenderness in healthy runners differ from runners with medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). METHODS: Pressure algometry was performed on 20 asymptomatic runners (40 legs) and 9 MTSS patients (14 symptomatic legs) at standardised locations along the medial border of the tibia. Intra-rater reliability was assessed in 10 randomly selected asymptomatic runners through repeated measurements 2 weeks later. RESULTS: Intra-rater reliability was moderate to excellent (ICC 0.53-0.90) in asymptomatic runners. Pain pressure threshold (PPT) was significantly reduced at 2/9-5/9 of the distance from the medial malleolus to the medial tibial condyle (p = 0.002-0.022). There was evidence of a statistically significant association between both height and weight, and PPT from the 3/9 (r = 0.416, p = 0.008) to 7/9 (r = 0.334, p = 0.035) and 3/9 (r = 0.448, p = 0.004) to 6/9 (r = 0.337, p = 0.034) area, respectively. In both MTSS patients and healthy runners, there was evidence of lower PPT in females compared to males (p = 0.0001-0.049) and a negative association between age and PPT (p = 0.001-0.033). MTSS patients had significantly lower PPT at the 3/9 site (p = 0.048) compared to asymptomatic runners. CONCLUSION: Pain pressure threshold algometry can be incorporated into MTSS clinical assessment to objectively assess pain and monitor progress. The presence of reduced medial tibial PPT in asymptomatic runners suggests that clinicians may not need to await resolution of medial tibia tenderness before allowing return to sport in MTSS patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 06/2013; 22(7). DOI:10.1007/s00167-013-2558-0 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) affects 5%-35% of runners. Research over the last 40 years investigating a range of interventions has not established any clearly effective management for MTSS that is better than prolonged rest. At the present time, understanding of the risk factors and potential causative factors for MTSS is inconclusive. The purpose of this review is to evaluate studies that have investigated various risk factors and their association with the development of MTSS in runners. Medical research databases were searched for relevant literature, using the terms "MTSS AND prevention OR risk OR prediction OR incidence". A systematic review of the literature identified ten papers suitable for inclusion in a meta-analysis. Measures with sufficient data for meta-analysis included dichotomous and continuous variables of body mass index (BMI), ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, navicular drop, orthotic use, foot type, previous history of MTSS, female gender, hip range of motion, and years of running experience. The following factors were found to have a statistically significant association with MTSS: increased hip external rotation in males (standard mean difference [SMD] 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.29-1.04, P<0.001); prior use of orthotics (risk ratio [RR] 2.31, 95% CI 1.56-3.43, P<0.001); fewer years of running experience (SMD -0.74, 95% CI -1.26 to -0.23, P=0.005); female gender (RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.15-2.54, P=0.008); previous history of MTSS (RR 3.74, 95% CI 1.17-11.91, P=0.03); increased body mass index (SMD 0.24, 95% CI 0.08-0.41, P=0.003); navicular drop (SMD 0.26, 95% CI 0.02-0.50, P=0.03); and navicular drop >10 mm (RR 1.99, 95% CI 1.00-3.96, P=0.05). Female gender, previous history of MTSS, fewer years of running experience, orthotic use, increased body mass index, increased navicular drop, and increased external rotation hip range of motion in males are all significantly associated with an increased risk of developing MTSS. Future studies should analyze males and females separately because risk factors vary by gender. A continuum model of the development of MTSS that links the identified risk factors and known processes is proposed. These data can inform both screening and countermeasures for the prevention of MTSS in runners.Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine 11/2013; 4:229-241. DOI:10.2147/OAJSM.S39331