Two simple clinical tests for predicting onset of medial tibial stress syndrome: shin palpation test and shin oedema test
ABSTRACT To examine the relationship between two clinical test results and future diagnosis of (Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome) MTSS in personnel at a military trainee establishment.
Data from a preparticipation musculoskeletal screening test performed on 384 Australian Defence Force Academy Officer Cadets were compared against 693 injuries reported by 326 of the Officer Cadets in the following 16 months. Data were held in an Injury Surveillance database and analysed using χ2 and Fisher's Exact tests, and Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve analysis.
Diagnosis of MTSS, confirmed by an independent blinded health practitioner.
Both the palpation and oedema clinical tests were each found to be significant predictors for later onset of MTSS. Specifically: Shin palpation test OR 4.63, 95% CI 2.5 to 8.5, Positive Likelihood Ratio 3.38, Negative Likelihood Ratio 0.732, Pearson χ2 p<0.001; Shin oedema test OR 76.1 95% CI 9.6 to 602.7, Positive Likelihood Ratio 7.26, Negative Likelihood Ratio 0.095, Fisher's Exact p<0.001; Combined Shin Palpation Test and Shin Oedema Test Positive Likelihood Ratio 7.94, Negative Likelihood Ratio <0.001, Fisher's Exact p<0.001. Female gender was found to be an independent risk factor (OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.66 to 5.31, Positive Likelihood Ratio 2.09, Negative Likelihood Ratio 0.703, Pearson χ2 p<0.001) for developing MTSS.
The tests for MTSS employed here are components of a normal clinical examination used to diagnose MTSS. This paper confirms that these tests and female gender can also be confidently applied in predicting those in an asymptomatic population who are at greater risk of developing MTSS symptoms with activity at some point in the future.
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ABSTRACT: As the profound health and cost benefits of physical activity to society are established and participation guidelines implemented, health practitioners are increasingly expected to utilize efficacious and justified injury management and prevention strategies. The complex and multifactorial nature of sports injury makes elucidation of multiple risk factors and how they may subtly and variably interact, difficult. The purpose of this case report is to discuss the differential diagnosis, acute management and rehabilitation of a case of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) in a surf life-saving athlete, in the context of sports injury prevention.
Article: Chronic Leg Pain in Athletes.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chronic leg pain is commonly treated by orthopaedic surgeons who take care of athletes. The sources are varied and include the more commonly encountered medial tibial stress syndrome, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, stress fracture, popliteal artery entrapment syndrome, nerve entrapment, Achilles tightness, deep vein thrombosis, and complex regional pain syndrome. Owing to overlapping physical examination findings, an assortment of imaging and other diagnostic modalities are employed to distinguish among the diagnoses to guide the appropriate management. Although most of these chronic problems are treated nonsurgically, some patients require operative intervention. For each condition listed above, the pathophysiology, diagnosis, management option, and outcomes are discussed in turn.The American Journal of Sports Medicine 08/2014; DOI:10.1177/0363546514545859 · 4.70 Impact Factor