Quantification of saleable meat yield using objective measurements captured by video image analysis technology.
ABSTRACT Video image analysis (VIA) images from grain-finished beef carcasses [n = 211; of which 63 did not receive zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZIL) and 148 received ZIL before harvest] were analyzed for indicators of muscle and fat to illustrate the ability to improve methodology to predict saleable meat yield of cattle fed and not fed ZIL. Carcasses were processed in large commercial beef processing facilities and were fabricated into standard subprimals, fat, and bone. Images taken by VIA technology were evaluated using computer image analysis software to quantify fat and lean parameters which were subsequently used in multiple-linear regression models to predict percentage of saleable meat yield for each carcass. Prediction models included variables currently quantified by VIA technology such as LM area (LMA), subcutaneous (SC) fat thickness at 75% the length of the LM (SFT75), and intramuscular fat score (IMF). Additional distance and area measures included LM width (LW), LM depth (LD), iliocostalis muscle area (IA), SC fat thickness at 25, 50, and 100% the length of the LM (SFT25, SFT50, SFT100), SC fat area from 25 to 100% the length of the LM (SCFA), and SC fat area adjacent to the 75% length of the LM from the spinous processes (SCFA75). Multiple ratio and product variables were also created from distance and area measures. For carcasses in this investigation, a 6 variable equation (Adj. R(2) = 0.62, MSE = 0.022) was calculated which included coefficients for ZIL treatment, SCFA75, LW, SCFA, SCFA/HCW, and SFT100/HCW. Use of parameters in the U.S. (Adj. R(2) = 0.39, MSE = 0.028) and Canadian [Adj. R(2) = 0.10, root mean square error (MSE) = 0.034] yield grade equations lack the predictability of the newly adapted equations developed for ZIL-fed and non-ZIL-fed cattle. Prediction equations developed in this study indicate that the use of VIA technology to quantify measurements taken at the 12th/13th rib separation could be used to predict saleable meat yield more accurately than those currently in use by U.S. and Canadian grading systems. Improvement in saleable meat yield prediction has the potential to decrease boxed beef variability via more homogeneous classification of carcass fabrication yield.
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ABSTRACT: Zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) is designed to increase carcass leanness, chilled side weight (CSW), and percent saleable yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single dose of ZH on cutability and subprimal yield of calf-fed Holstein steers when fed for increasing durations. Two hundred forty steers were fed 8.3 mg/kg of ZH on a DM basis for 0, 20, 30, or 40 d, with a 3-d withdrawal before slaughter. After slaughter, steers were fabricated into 4 pieces (round, loin/flank, rib/plate, and chuck), packaged in combos, shipped to 2 locations, and further fabricated into subprimal pieces and trim. Trim was collected from each primal and separated into groups based on composition of 90, 80, and 50% lean. Zilpaterol hydrochloride increased (P = 0.01) CSW by 6.22 kg and saleable yield by 6.4 kg when included in the diet for 20 d. Furthermore, saleable yield as a percentage of CSW was increased (P = 0.03) 1.18 percentage units when included in the diet for 20 d. Steers fed ZH for 20 d had heavier strip loins (4.47 vs. 4.12 kg, P = 0.02), tenderloins (2.75 vs. 2.49 kg, P = 0.02), and ribeye rolls (5.74 vs. 5.30 kg, P = 0.01) than steers not fed ZH. These advantages are further demonstrated as a percentage of CSW. Strip loins (P = 0.06), tenderloins (P = 0.04), and ribeye rolls (P = 0.04) of ZH-fed steers had a greater percentage of CSW than controls. Zilpaterol hydrochloride also increased the percentage of CSW of the 3 primary components of the round when fed for 20 d. The knuckle was 0.10 percentage units heavier (P = 0.11), the top round was 0.24 percentage units heavier (P = 0.04), and the bottom round was 0.22 percentage units heavier (P = 0.03) in ZH-fed steers when compared with steers not fed ZH. Based on these data, it can be concluded that ZH significantly increased subprimal cutting weights, yields, and percentage saleable yield of calf-fed Holstein steers when fed for at least 20 d before slaughter. Zilpaterol hydrochloride increased percentage of CSW of subprimal cuts from Holstein steers in the round and to a lesser degree in the loin.Journal of Animal Science 08/2009; 87(11):3722-9. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Eighty-seven grain-finished steers were harvested, evaluated, and fabricated into wholesale cuts to determine what measured composition indicators most accurately describe the percentage of closely trimmed salable meat yield. Indicators of lean and fat composition present at the cross-section between the 12th and 13th ribs were objectively evaluated using Assess image analysis software. Salable meat yield ranged from 50.18% to 72.92%, trimmable fat yield ranged from 12.87% to 36.69%, and bone yield ranged from 10.07% to 19.21%. Regression models were developed to estimate percentage of total salable meat yield. Composition indicators chosen to predict salable meat yield included hot carcass weight (HCW), perinephric fat weight, longissimus muscle area (LMA), subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), ratio of LMA to subcutaneous fat area, and ratio of subcutaneous fat depth to HCW. These results indicate that prediction of beef carcass salable meat yield can be improved via modification to current measures used in the USDA yield grade equation and addition of new measures.Meat Science 01/2009; 82(2):143-50. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The National Beef Quality Audit-2005 assessed the current status of quality and consistency of US fed steers and heifers. Hide colors or breed type were black (56.3%), red (18.6%), Holstein (7.9%), gray (6.0%), yellow (4.9%), brown (3.0%), white (2.3%), and brindle (1.0%). Identification method and frequency were lot visual tags (63.2%), individual visual tags (38.7%), metal-clip tags (11.8%), electronic tags (3.5%), bar-coded tags (0.3%), by other means (2.5%), and without identification (9.7%). Brand frequencies were no (61.3%), 1 (35.1%), and 2 or more (3.6%), and brands were located on the butt (26.5%), side (7.4%), and shoulder (1.2%). There were 22.3% of cattle without horns, and the majority of those with horns (52.2%) were between 2.54 and 12.7 cm in length. Percentages of animals with mud or manure on specific body locations were none (25.8%), legs (61.4%), belly (55.9%), side (22.6%), and top-line (10.0%). Permanent incisor number and occurrence were zero (82.2%), 1 (5.2%), 2 (9.9%), 3 (0.4%), 4 (1.2%), 5 (0.1%), 6 (0.3%), 7 (0.0%), and 8 (0.7%). Most carcasses (64.8%) were not bruised, 25.8% had one bruise, and 9.4% had multiple bruises. Bruise location and incidence were round (10.6%), loin (32.6%), rib (19.5%), chuck (27.0%), and brisket, flank, and plate (10.3%). Condemnation item and incidence were liver (24.7%), lungs (11.5%), tripe (11.6%), heads (6.0%), tongues (9.7%), and carcasses (0.0%). Carcass evaluation revealed these traits and frequencies: steer (63.7%), heifer (36.2%), bullock (0.05%), and cow (0.04%) sex classes; dark-cutters (1.9%); A (97.1%), B (1.7%), and C or older (1.2%) overall maturities; and native (90.9%), dairy-type (8.3%), and Bos indicus (0.8%) estimated breed types. Mean USDA yield grade (YG) traits were USDA YG (2.9), HCW (359.9 kg), adjusted fat thickness (1.3 cm), LM area (86.4 cm(2)), and KPH (2.3%). The USDA YG were YG 1 (16.5%), YG 2 (36.3%), YG 3 (33.1%), YG 4 (11.8%), and YG 5 (2.3%). Mean USDA quality grade traits were USDA quality grade (Select(90)), marbling score (Small(32)), overall maturity (A(64)), lean maturity (A(57)), and skeletal maturity (A(68)). Marbling score distribution was Slightly Abundant or greater (2.7%), Moderate (4.3%), Modest (14.4%), Small (34.5%), Slight (41.2%), and Traces or less (2.9%). This information helps the beef industry measure progress and provides a benchmark for future educational and research activities.Journal of Animal Science 09/2008; 86(12):3533-43. · 1.92 Impact Factor