Acute Bacterial Osteoarticular Infections: Eight-Year Analysis of C-Reactive Protein for Oral Step-Down Therapy
ABSTRACT One of the most important decisions in the treatment of osteoarticular infections is the time at which parenteral therapy can be changed to oral therapy. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute inflammatory indicator with a half-life of 19 hours and thus can be helpful in assessing the adequacy of therapy for bacterial infections. At our institution, a combination of CRP and clinical findings is used to determine the transition to oral therapy.
A search of 8 years of electronic records identified children with osteoarticular infections. Only children with culture-positive acute bacterial arthritis (ABA) or acute bacterial osteomyelitis (ABO) were studied further. A primary chart review of demographic and clinical data was conducted, and a secondary chart review of complicated outcomes was performed.
Of 194 total patients, complicated outcomes occurred in 40, of which 35 were prolonged therapy. Only 1 microbiologic failure occurred, presumably due to a retained intra-articular fragment of infected bone. CRP was highest initially among patients with simultaneous ABO + ABA and among those with complicated outcomes, and was lower at the transition to oral therapy in the complicated outcome group (1.5 vs 2.1 mg/dL; P = .012).
The combination of clinical findings and CRP is a useful tool to transition children with osteoarticular infections to oral therapy. Complicated outcomes were associated with higher early CRP at diagnosis and lower CRP at the end of parenteral therapy, suggesting that clinicians were more conservative with prolonged initial parenteral therapy in this group.
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ABSTRACT: Durations of intravenous antibiotic therapy for bacterial infections in hospitalized children sometimes extend well beyond clinical recovery and are often the primary determinants of length of stay. These durations, however, are not always based on solid evidence. Moreover, fixed durations are invariant to important individual factors. We review guidelines and the available evidence for durations of intravenous antibiotic therapy for meningitis, bacteremia, urinary tract infection, and osteomyelitis, conditions where intravenous antibiotics often extend beyond resolution of clinical symptoms. We propose a framework for the duration of therapy that is intended to serve as a guide when standards of care are either nonexistent, dated, conflicting, or contrary to evidence from published studies. This framework incorporates patient-centered factors such as severity of infection, response to therapy, ease of intravenous access, harms and costs of ongoing intravenous treatment, and family preferences. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2014. © 2014 Society of Hospital MedicineJournal of Hospital Medicine 09/2014; 9(9). DOI:10.1002/jhm.2239 · 2.08 Impact Factor
Article: Acute Osteomyelitis in Children[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Unless acute osteomyelitis in children is diagnosed promptly and treated appropriately, it can be a devastating or even fatal disease. This review summarizes the current approach to the treatment of acute osteomyelitis in children. Bacteria may reach bone through direct inoculation from traumatic wounds, by spreading from adjacent tissue affected by cellulitis or septic arthritis, or through hematogenous seeding. In children, an acute bone infection is most often hematogenous in origin.(1) In high-income countries, acute osteomyelitis occurs in about 8 of 100,000 children per year,(2) but it is considerably more common in low-income countries. Boys are affected twice as often as girls.(2),(3) Unless acute osteomyelitis is diagnosed promptly and treated appropriately,(4) it can be a devastating or even fatal disease with a high rate of sequelae, especially in resource-poor countries where patients present ...New England Journal of Medicine 01/2014; 370(4):352-60. DOI:10.1056/NEJMra1213956 · 54.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The epidemiology and clinical manifestations of osteoarticular infections are changing primarily as a result of the emergence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. Multifocal disease, venous thrombosis and pathologic fractures are manifestations of CA-MRSA osteomyelitis. MRI is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice for musculoskeletal infections. Nafcillin/oxacillin or cefazolin remains the antibiotic of choice for treating infections caused by MSSA. A β-lactam antibiotic is recommended for Kingella kingae. Vancomycin and clindamycin are the first line agents for treating osteomyelitis caused by CA-MRSA. A short course of parenteral antibiotics followed by appropriate oral antibiotics is equivalent to total course of parenteral antibiotics for most patients and avoids the risks associated with PICCs. Surgical drainage of subperiosteal abscesses and surrounding pyomyositis is common with S. aureus clones currently circulating. Collaboration with hematologists for managing patients with venous thromboses is recommended.The Journal of infection 10/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jinf.2013.09.014 · 4.02 Impact Factor