Patterns of Outpatient Antihypertensive Medication Use During Pregnancy in a Medicaid Population
ABSTRACT Hypertensive disorders occur in approximately 6% to 8% of all pregnancies and are a significant source of maternal and fetal morbidity. Little is known about the range of agents routinely used in practice. We used Medicaid claims from 2000 to 2007 to identify completed pregnancies. We included women who were Medicaid beneficiaries from at least 3 months prior to last menstrual period to 1 month postdelivery, and were successfully linked to infant records. Maternal exposure to antihypertensive medications was derived from Medicaid pharmacy claim files, and duration of exposure was assigned based on the days' supply dispensed. We identified 1 106 757 Medicaid patients in our cohort, of whom 48 453 (4.4%) were exposed to antihypertensive medications during pregnancy. The prevalence of antihypertensive use increased from 3.5% to 4.9% during the study period. Antihypertensive medication users were older than nonusers, more likely to be white or black, and more likely to have comorbid diabetes mellitus and renal disease. Overall, 1.9% of pregnant women were exposed during the first trimester, 1.7% during the second trimester, and 3.2% during the third trimester. The range of antihypertensive medications to which patients were exposed was highly heterogeneous and frequently included agents other than methyldopa or labetalol. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor exposure, which is contraindicated in late pregnancy, occurred in 928 (4.9%) antihypertensive medication users in the second trimester and 383 (1.1%) in the third trimester. Antihypertensive use during pregnancy is relatively common and increasing. The wide range of agents used during pregnancy includes medications considered contraindicated during pregnancy.
SourceAvailable from: Luis Alberto Garcia-Rodriguez[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: PurposeThis study aimed to describe the management of antihypertensive medications in pregnancy by general practitioners in the UK and compare it with current guidelines.Methods We used electronic medical records from The Health Improvement Network database from 1996 to 2010 to identify completed pregnancies. The study cohort included the first pregnancy identified during the study period in women aged 13–49 years. Information on both hypertension diagnoses and prescription of specific antihypertensive medications within the 90 days before the last menstrual period (LMP) and during pregnancy was ascertained from electronic medical records.ResultsAmong 148 544 eligible pregnancies, we identified 1995 (1.3%) during which the women had pre-existing hypertension diagnosed by the LMP date. Overall, the prevalence of antihypertensive medications during the first trimester was 1.5%; beta-blockers were the most commonly prescribed antihypertensive. Among women with pre-existing hypertension, 36% were prescribed an antihypertensive medication during the 90 days before the LMP. Among those, 9.6% and 22.2% had discontinued their medication by the first and second trimesters, respectively. For contraindicated drugs such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers, the corresponding discontinuation rates were around 25% and 70%. Women who switched therapy received preferably either methyldopa or an alpha/beta-blocker.Conclusions In this population of UK pregnant women, prescription patterns of antihypertensive medications were dominated by recommended treatments, although some patients continued on contraindicated drugs throughout pregnancy or switched to preferred agents in a delayed fashion. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 10/2014; 23(10). DOI:10.1002/pds.3641 · 3.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Many women in the reproductive years have chronic medical conditions that are affected by pregnancy or in which the fetus is placed at increased risk. In most of these women, ongoing medical management of their conditions is greatly improved, even compared with a decade or two ago. However, their condition may still be seriously exacerbated by the physiological changes of pregnancy, and close monitoring of a carefully planned pregnancy is optimal. This requires effective and safe contraceptive use until pregnancy is desired and the medical condition is stabilised. Many contraceptives will also have adverse effects on some medical conditions, and there is now a considerable awareness of the complexities of some of these interactions. For this reason the World Health Organization has developed an excellent, simple and pragmatic programme of guidelines on a four point scale (the WHO “Medical Eligibility Criteria”: WHO-MEC), summarising risk of specific contraceptive methods in women with specified chronic medical conditions. The general approach to contraceptive management of many of these conditions is addressed in this article.Bailliè re s Best Practice and Research in Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2014.06.004 · 3.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Data on pharmacological management during pregnancy are scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the type and frequency of cardiac medication used in pregnancy in patients with cardiovascular disease and to assess the relationship between medication use and fetal outcome. Methods and results Between 2007 and 2011 sixty hospitals in 28 countries enrolled 1321 pregnant women. All patients had structural heart disease (congenital 66%, valvular 25% or cardiomyopathy 7% or ischemic 2%). Medication was used by 424 patients (32%) at some time during pregnancy: 22% used beta-blockers, 8% antiplatelet agents, 7% diuretics, 2.8% ACE inhibitors and 0.5% statins. Compared to those who did not take medication, patients taking medication were older, more likely to be parous, have valvular heart disease and were less often in sinus rhythm. The odds ratio of fetal adverse events in users versus non-users of medication was 2.6 (95% CI 2.0–3.4) and after adjustment for cardiac and obstetric parameter was 2.0 (95% CI 1.4–2.7). Babies of patients treated with beta-blockers had a significantly lower adjusted birth weight (3140 versus 3240 g, p = 0.002). The highest rate of fetal malformation was found in patients taking ACE inhibitors (8%). Conclusion One third of pregnant women with heart disease used cardiac medication during their pregnancy, which was associated with an increased rate of adverse fetal events. Birth weight was significantly lower in children of patients taking beta-blockers. A randomized trial is needed to distinguish the effects of the medication from the effects of the underlying maternal cardiac condition.International Journal of Cardiology 11/2014; 177(1):124–128. DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.09.013 · 6.18 Impact Factor