Diversion with Neoadjuvant vs Surgery with Adjuvant Treatment for Obstructing Rectal Cancer?
Los Angeles, CA.Diseases of the Colon & Rectum (Impact Factor: 3.2). 10/2012; 55(10):e346. DOI: 10.1097/DCR.0b013e31826536ed
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ABSTRACT: The conviction that postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy represent an acceptable standard of care for patients with Dukes' B (stage II) and Dukes' C (stage III) carcinoma of the rectum evolved in the absence of data from clinical trials designed to determine whether the addition of radiotherapy results in improved disease-free survival and overall survival. This study was carried out to address this issue. An additional aim was to determine whether leucovorin (LV)-modulated 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is superior to the combination of 5-FU, semustine, and vincristine (MOF) in men. Eligible patients (n = 694) with Dukes' B or C carcinoma of the rectum were enrolled in National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) Protocol R-02 from September 1987 through December 1992 and were followed. They were randomly assigned to receive either postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy alone (n = 348) or chemotherapy with postoperative radiotherapy (n = 346). All female patients (n = 287) received 5-FU plus LV chemotherapy; male patients received either MOF (n = 207) or 5-FU plus LV (n = 200). Primary analyses were carried out by use of a stratified log-rank statistic; P values are two-sided. The average time on study for surviving patients is 93 months as of September 30, 1998. Postoperative radiotherapy resulted in no beneficial effect on disease-free survival (P =.90) or overall survival (P =.89), regardless of which chemotherapy was utilized, although it reduced the cumulative incidence of locoregional relapse from 13% to 8% at 5-year follow-up (P =.02). Male patients who received 5-FU plus LV demonstrated a statistically significant benefit in disease-free survival at 5 years compared with those who received MOF (55% versus 47%; P =.009) but not in 5-year overall survival (65% versus 62%; P =.17). The addition of postoperative radiation therapy to chemotherapy in Dukes' B and C rectal cancer did not alter the subsequent incidence of distant disease, although there was a reduction in locoregional relapse when compared with chemotherapy alone.JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 04/2000; 92(5):388-96. DOI:10.1093/jnci/92.5.388
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ABSTRACT: Although chemoradiotherapy plus resection is considered standard treatment for operable rectal carcinoma, the optimal time to administer this therapy is not clear. The NSABP R-03 (National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project R-03) trial compared neoadjuvant versus adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced rectal carcinoma. Patients with clinical T3 or T4 or node-positive rectal cancer were randomly assigned to preoperative or postoperative chemoradiotherapy. Chemotherapy consisted of fluorouracil and leucovorin with 45 Gy in 25 fractions with a 5.40-Gy boost within the original margins of treatment. In the preoperative group, surgery was performed within 8 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. In the postoperative group, chemotherapy began after recovery from surgery but no later than 4 weeks after surgery. The primary end points were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). From August 1993 to June 1999, 267 patients were randomly assigned to NSABP R-03. The intended sample size was 900 patients. Excluding 11 ineligible and two eligible patients without follow-up data, the analysis used data on 123 patients randomly assigned to preoperative and 131 to postoperative chemoradiotherapy. Surviving patients were observed for a median of 8.4 years. The 5-year DFS for preoperative patients was 64.7% v 53.4% for postoperative patients (P = .011). The 5-year OS for preoperative patients was 74.5% v 65.6% for postoperative patients (P = .065). A complete pathologic response was achieved in 15% of preoperative patients. No preoperative patient with a complete pathologic response has had a recurrence. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy, compared with postoperative chemoradiotherapy, significantly improved DFS and showed a trend toward improved OS.Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2009; 27(31):5124-30. DOI:10.1200/JCO.2009.22.0467
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ABSTRACT: Postoperative chemoradiotherapy is the recommended standard therapy for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. In recent years, encouraging results with preoperative radiotherapy have been reported. We compared preoperative chemoradiotherapy with postoperative chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer. We randomly assigned patients with clinical stage T3 or T4 or node-positive disease to receive either preoperative or postoperative chemoradiotherapy. The preoperative treatment consisted of 5040 cGy delivered in fractions of 180 cGy per day, five days per week, and fluorouracil, given in a 120-hour continuous intravenous infusion at a dose of 1000 mg per square meter of body-surface area per day during the first and fifth weeks of radiotherapy. Surgery was performed six weeks after the completion of chemoradiotherapy. One month after surgery, four five-day cycles of fluorouracil (500 mg per square meter per day) were given. Chemoradiotherapy was identical in the postoperative-treatment group, except for the delivery of a boost of 540 cGy. The primary end point was overall survival. Four hundred twenty-one patients were randomly assigned to receive preoperative chemoradiotherapy and 402 patients to receive postoperative chemoradiotherapy. The overall five-year survival rates were 76 percent and 74 percent, respectively (P=0.80). The five-year cumulative incidence of local relapse was 6 percent for patients assigned to preoperative chemoradiotherapy and 13 percent in the postoperative-treatment group (P=0.006). Grade 3 or 4 acute toxic effects occurred in 27 percent of the patients in the preoperative-treatment group, as compared with 40 percent of the patients in the postoperative-treatment group (P=0.001); the corresponding rates of long-term toxic effects were 14 percent and 24 percent, respectively (P=0.01). Preoperative chemoradiotherapy, as compared with postoperative chemoradiotherapy, improved local control and was associated with reduced toxicity but did not improve overall survival.New England Journal of Medicine 11/2004; 351(17):1731-40. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa040694
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