The population at risk of adverse events after smallpox vaccination has increased in recent years. This has important implications for preparedness strategies against bioterrorism with the variola virus. The aim of the study was to estimate the size of this special population in Israel.
The study was conducted in January 2010. Data on patients with contraindications to smallpox vaccination, as delineated by the Israel Ministry of Health for planning post-event strategies, were retrieved from the computerized records of the Department of AIDS and Tuberculosis and the Transplantation Center of the Israel Ministry of Health. In addition, the database of the main Health Maintenance Organization in Israel which insures 60% of the national population was searched using ICD-9 codes and specific medications issued in the last quarter of 2009.
Of the 7,563,800 persons residing in Israel in January 2010, 326,318 were at risk of an adverse event after smallpox vaccination.
Approximately 4.3% of the Israeli population should not be exposed to the currently used smallpox vaccine. This knowledge is important to ensure the effectiveness of mass vaccination programs in the event of a bioterror attack.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A comparative study of two smallpox vaccines, standard calf lymph vaccine, and an attenuated vaccine, CVI-78, was performed in 95 children. Primary vaccination with CVI-78 resulted in a more attenuated response than primary vaccination with standard vaccine. Sixty-one percent of those vaccinated with CVI-78 and 96 percent of those vaccinated with standard vaccine developed a major dermal reaction; 16 percent of those vaccinated with CVI-78 and 89 percent of those vaccinated with standard vaccine developed post-vaccination neutralizing antibodies. Twenty-seven percent of the children vaccinated with CVI-78 demonstrated neither a dermal nor serologic postvaccination response, whereas only 2 percent of those vaccinated with standard vaccination demonstrated no postvaccination response.
Pediatric Research 09/1975; 9(8):624-8. DOI:10.1203/00006450-197508000-00002 · 2.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although desirable for safety reasons, the host range restrictions of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) make it less applicable for general use. Propagation in primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) requires particular cell culture experience and has no pre-established record of tissue culture reproducibility. We investigated a variety of established cell lines for productive virus growth and recombinant gene expression. Baby hamster kidney cells (BHK), a well-characterized, easily maintained cell line, supported MVA growth and as proficient expression of the E. coli lacZ reporter gene as the highly efficient CEF, whereas other cell lines were non-permissive or allowed only very limited MVA replication. Importantly, no virus production occurred in patient-derived infected primary human cells. These results emphasize the safety and now improved accessibility of MVA for the development of expression vectors and live recombinant vaccines.
Journal of General Virology 03/1998; 79 ( Pt 2)(2):347-52. DOI:10.1099/0022-1317-79-2-347 · 3.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biological weapons have recently attracted the attention and the resources of the nation. Discerning the nature of the threat of bioweapons as well as appropriate responses to them requires greater attention to the biological characteristics of these instruments of war and terror. The dominant paradigm of a weapon as a nuclear device that explodes or a chemical cloud that is set adrift leaves us ill-equipped conceptually and practically to assess and thus to prevent the potentially devastating effects of bioterrorism. Strengthening the public health and infectious disease infrastructure is an effective step toward averting the suffering that could be wrought by a terrorist's use of a biological agent.
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