Near-Infrared Emitting Radioactive Gold Nanoparticles with Molecular Pharmacokinetics
ABSTRACT A molecular nanoprobe: Glutathione-coated near-infrared-emitting radioactive gold nanoparticles have been synthezised and behave like small-molecule contrast agents in pharmocokinetics. These nanoparticles show a rapid distribution half-life, a desirable elimination half-life, and hold promise for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and fluorescence imaging.
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ABSTRACT: Dendrimers are a class of structurally defined macromolecules featured with a central core, a low-density interior formed by repetitive branching units, and a high-density exterior terminated with surface functional groups. In contrast to their polymeric counterparts, dendrimers are nano-sized and symmetrically shaped, which can be reproducibly synthesized in a large scale with monodispersity. These unique features have made dendrimers of increasing interest for drug delivery and other biomedical applications as a nanoscaffold system. Intended to address the potential use of dendrimers for the development of theranostic agents, which combines therapeutics and diagnostics in a single entity for personalized medicine, this review focuses on the reported methodologies of using dendrimer nanoscaffolds for targeted imaging and therapy of prostate cancer. Of particular interest, relevant chemistry strategies are discussed due to their important roles in the design and synthesis of diagnostic and therapeutic dendrimer-based nanoconjugates and potential theranostic agents, targeted or non-targeted. Given the developing status of nanoscaffolded theranostics, major challenges and potential hurdles are discussed along with the examples representing current advances.Molecular Pharmaceutics 01/2013; 10(3). DOI:10.1021/mp3005325 · 4.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cerenkov luminescence imaging based on light emission from the decay of radionuclides has recently drawn great interest in molecular imaging. In this paper, we report, for the first time, the Cerenkov luminescence phenomenon of 198Au isotope, as well as a facile route to the preparation of radioluminescent Au nanocages without additional radiolabeling or dye conjugation. The specific radioactivity of the Au nanocages could be easily and precisely controlled by varying the concentration of H198AuCl4 precursor used for the galvanic replacement reaction. The direct incorporation of 198Au atoms into the structure of Au nanocages enabled the ability of accurate analysis and real-time imaging in vivo. Furthermore, under biological conditions, the radioactive Au nanocages were shown to emit light with wavelengths in the visible and near-infrared regions, enabling luminescence imaging of the whole mice in vivo, as well as the organs ex vivo. When combined with their favorable scattering and absorption properties in the near-infrared region, the radioactive Au nanocages can serve as a new platform for multimodality imaging and will have a significant impact on both small animal and clinical imaging.Nano Letters 01/2013; 13(2). DOI:10.1021/nl304111v · 12.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Imaging sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) could provide us with critical information about the progression of a cancerous disease. Real-time high-resolution intraoperative photoacoustic imaging (PAI) in conjunction with a near-infrared (NIR) probe may offer opportunities for the immediate imaging for direct identification and resection of SLN or collecting tissue samples. In this work a commercially amenable synthetic methodology is revealed for fabricating luminescent carbon nanoparticles with rapid clearance properties. A one-pot “green” technique is pursued, which involved rapid surface passivation of carbon nanoparticles with organic macromolecules (e.g., polysorbate, polyethyleneglycol) in solvent-free conditions. Interestingly, the naked carbon nanoparticles are derived for the first time, from commercial food grade honey. Surface coated particles are markedly smaller (∼7 nm) than previously explored particles (gold, single-walled carbon nanotubes, copper) for SLN imaging. The results indicate an exceptionally rapid signal enhancement (∼2 min) of the SLN. Owing to their strong optical absorption in the NIR region, tiny size and rapid lymphatic transport, this platform offers great potential for faster resection of SLN and may lower complications caused in axillary investigation by mismarking with dyes or low-resolution imaging techniques.Nano Research 05/2013; 6(5). DOI:10.1007/s12274-013-0308-8 · 6.96 Impact Factor