Outbreak of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae at a Long-Term Acute Care Hospital: Sustained Reductions in Transmission through Active Surveillance and Targeted Interventions
ABSTRACT Objective. To describe a Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) outbreak and interventions to prevent transmission. Design, setting, and patients. Epidemiologic investigation of a CRE outbreak among patients at a long-term acute care hospital (LTACH). Methods. Microbiology records at LTACH A from March 2009 through February 2011 were reviewed to identify CRE transmission cases and cases admitted with CRE. CRE bacteremia episodes were identified during March 2009-July 2011. Biweekly CRE prevalence surveys were conducted during July 2010-July 2011, and interventions to prevent transmission were implemented, including education and auditing of staff and isolation and cohorting of CRE patients with dedicated nursing staff and shared medical equipment. Trends were evaluated using weighted linear or Poisson regression. CRE transmission cases were included in a case-control study to evaluate risk factors for acquisition. A real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect the bla(KPC) gene, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to assess the genetic relatedness of isolates. Results. Ninety-nine CRE transmission cases, 16 admission cases (from 7 acute care hospitals), and 29 CRE bacteremia episodes were identified. Significant reductions were observed in CRE prevalence (49% vs 8%), percentage of patients screened with newly detected CRE (44% vs 0%), and CRE bacteremia episodes (2.5 vs 0.0 per 1,000 patient-days). Cases were more likely to have received β-lactams, have diabetes, and require mechanical ventilation. All tested isolates were KPC-producing K. pneumoniae, and nearly all isolates were genetically related. Conclusion. CRE transmission can be reduced in LTACHs through surveillance testing and targeted interventions. Sustainable reductions within and across healthcare facilities may require a regional public health approach.
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ABSTRACT: Introduced in the 1980s, carbapenem antibiotics have served as the last line of defense against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms. Over the last decade, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have emerged as a significant public health threat. This review summarizes the molecular genetics, natural history, and epidemiology of CRE and discusses approaches to prevention and treatment.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 09/2014; 1323(1). DOI:10.1111/nyas.12537 · 4.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the USA, infectious diseases continue to exact a substantial toll on health and health-care resources. Endemic diseases such as chronic hepatitis, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections affect millions of individuals and widen health disparities. Additional concerns include health-care-associated and foodborne infections-both of which have been targets of broad prevention efforts, with success in some areas, yet major challenges remain. Although substantial progress in reduction of the burden of vaccine-preventable diseases has been made, continued cases and outbreaks of these diseases persist, driven by various contributing factors. Worldwide, emerging and reemerging infections continue to challenge prevention and control strategies while the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance needs urgent action. An important priority for control of infectious disease is to ensure that scientific and technological advances in molecular diagnostics and bioinformatics are well integrated into public health. Broad and diverse partnerships across governments, health care, academia, and industry, and with the public, are essential to effectively reduce the burden of infectious diseases.The Lancet 07/2014; 384(9937). DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60890-4 · 39.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background. Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is an emerging multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen, spreading to hospitalized elderly patients. Risk factors in this setting are unclear. Our aims were to explore the contribution of multi-morbidity and disease severity in the onset of CRKP colonization/infection, and to describe changes in epidemiology after the institution of quarantine-ward managed by staff-cohorting. Methods and Findings. With a case-control design, we evaluated 133 CRKP-positive patients (75 M, 58 F; mean age 79±10 years) and a control group of 400 CRKP-negative subjects (179 M, 221 F; mean age 79±12 years) admitted to Internal Medicine and Critical Subacute Care Unit of Parma University Hospital, Italy, during a 10-month period. Information about comorbidity type and severity, expressed through Cumulative Illness Rating Scale-CIRS, was collected in each patient. During an overall 5-month period, CRKP-positive patients were managed in an isolation ward with staff cohorting. A contact-bed isolation approach was established in the other 5 months. The effects of these strategies were evaluated with a cross-sectional study design. CRKP-positive subjects had higher CIRS comorbidity index (12.0±3.6 vs 9.1±3.5, p<0.0001) and CIRS severity index (3.2±0.4 vs 2.9±0.5, p<0.0001), along with higher cardiovascular, respiratory, renal and neurological disease burden than control group. CIRS severity index was associated with a higher risk for CRKP-colonization (OR 13.3, 95%CI6.88–25.93), independent of comorbidities. Isolation ward activation was associated with decreased monthly incidence of CRKP-positivity (from 16.9% to 1.2% of all admissions) and infection (from 36.6% to 22.5% of all positive cases; p = 0.04 derived by Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Mortality rate did not differ between cases and controls (21.8% vs 15.2%, p = 0.08). The main limitations of this study are observational design and lack of data about prior antibiotic exposure. Conclusions. Comorbidities and disease severity are relevant risk factors for CRKP-colonization/infection in elderly frail patients. Sanitary measures may have contributed to limit epidemic spread and rate of infection also in internal medicine setting.PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e110001. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0110001 · 3.53 Impact Factor