Beware of "Old" Horner Syndrome
ABSTRACT PURPOSE.: Chronic Horner syndrome is a rare clinical condition, the etiology of which often remains undiscovered. A patient is presented with an 8-year history of Horner syndrome who was diagnosed with multiple cervical artery dissections. CASE REPORT.: A 42-year-old woman presented to our emergency department with a severe occipital headache that woke her up from sleep 3 days earlier. She had a history of headaches and recalled one in particular dating back to 2003. At that time, she sought medical attention at general practitioner's office because of the terrible headache and a noticeable disparity of her pupils. She was told that she had miosis of the right pupil. The examination conducted in 2011 revealed Horner syndrome with right miosis and ptosis. A four-vessel cerebral angiography revealed an occlusion of the right internal carotid artery. The morphology of stenosis and pseudoaneurysm of C1 segment of left internal carotid artery, as well as a pseudoaneurysm of V3/V4 junction of left vertebral artery indicated a probable dissective etiology. CONCLUSIONS.: This case illustrates that Horner syndrome with a chronic presentation can be as potentially dangerous as its acute counterpart and should be judiciously investigated.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Spontaneous cervical arterial dissection (SCAD) is a non-traumatic tear or disruption in the wall of the internal carotid arteries or the vertebral arteries. It accounts for about 25% of strokes in patients aged under 45 years. Awareness of its clinical features and advances in imaging over the last two decades have contributed to earlier identification of this condition. SCAD has become the commonest form of vascular lesion identified in the cervical carotid and vertebral arteries, second only to atherosclerosis. This review is an update on the epidemiology, vulnerable arterial segments, risk factors, clinical features, diagnosis, current treatment and prognosis of SCAD.Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria 01/2009; 66(4):922-7. DOI:10.1590/S0004-282X2008000600036 · 0.55 Impact Factor
Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 04/2008; 79(3):293. DOI:10.1136/jnnp.2007.124479 · 4.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cervical-artery dissection (CAD) is a major cause of cerebral ischaemia in young adults and can lead to various clinical symptoms, some of which are benign (eg, headache, neck pain, Horner's syndrome, and cranial-nerve palsy), but most patients have a stroke or transient ischaemic attack. In addition to trauma to the neck, other risk factors have been suggested, such as infection, migraine, hyperhomocysteinaemia, and the 677TT genotype of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR 677TT), although evidence is sparse. An underlying arteriopathy, which could in part be genetically determined, is believed to have a role in the development of CAD. Importantly, both research on and optimum management of CAD strongly rely on diagnostic accuracy. Although the functional outcome of CAD is good in most patients, socioprofessional effects can be important. Incidence of the disorder in the general population is underestimated. Mortality and short-term recurrence rates are low but possibly also underestimated. Further research is warranted to improve our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology, to assess the long-term outcome, and ultimately to provide treatment and prevention strategies.The Lancet Neurology 08/2009; 8(7):668-78. DOI:10.1016/S1474-4422(09)70084-5 · 21.82 Impact Factor