GNAS codon 201 mutations are uncommon in intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct
ABSTRACT Background: Activating point mutations of GNAS at codon 201 have been detected in approximately two thirds of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas. Intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile ducts (IPNBs) morphologically resemble pancreatic IPMNs. This study sought to assess the mutational status of GNAS at codon 201 in IPNBs. Methods: Thirty-four patients were included. DNA from microdissected IPNBs was subjected to a polymerase chain reaction and ligation method for the detection of GNAS mutations at codon 201 and of KRAS mutations at codon 12. Mutational status was compared with clinical and pathologic data. Results: The IPNBs had a median diameter of 3.5 cm and were located intrahepatically (n= 6), extrahepatically (n= 13), both intra- and extrahepatically (n= 4) or in the gallbladder (intracystic papillary neoplasms, n= 11). Most exhibited pancreatobiliary differentiation (n= 20), high-grade dysplasia (n= 26) and an associated adenocarcinoma (n= 20). Analysis of GNAS codon 201 identified only one mutant sample in a multifocal intestinal subtype intrahepatic IPNB with high-grade dysplasia. Six lesions harboured a KRAS codon 12 mutation. Conclusions: GNAS codon 201 mutations are uncommon in IPNBs, by contrast with pancreatic IPMNs. More comprehensive molecular profiling is needed to uncover the pathways involved in IPNB development.
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ABSTRACT: The neoplasms of the biliary tree include the carcinomas of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts, the gallbladder and the ampulla. Two types of precancerous lesions precede these adenocarcinomas: the flat and non-tumour forming type that is called biliary intraepithelial neoplasia, and the papillary and tumour-forming type that has been named intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct. Rarely also biliary mucinous cystic neoplasm can give rise to invasive biliary adenocarcinomas. This review discusses the pathological, molecular, epidemiological, clinical and prognostic features of the precancerous biliary lesions, separated according to their origin in the bile ducts, the ampulla and the gall bladder.Best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology 04/2013; 27(2):285-97. DOI:10.1016/j.bpg.2013.04.002 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the biliary tract (BT-IPMN) has been increasingly recognized as a biliary counterpart of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas (P-IPMN). However, there is limited information regarding whether BT-IPMNs and P-IPMNs behave in a similar fashion. METHODS: We retrospectively compared clinicopathological variables between 9 patients with BT-IPMN and 44 patients with P-IPMN. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in age between patients with BT-IPMN and those with P-IPMN. The male/female ratio was significantly higher in patients with P-IPMN than in those with BT-IPMN (P = 0.012). Clinical presentation with jaundice was more common in patients with BT-IPMN (67%) than in those with P-IPMN (4.5%, P = 0.002). In addition, serum levels of CEA and CA19-9 were higher in patients with BT-IPMN than in those with P-IPMN (P = 0.019 and P = 0.002, respectively). The pathological diagnosis of malignancy was significantly more common in patients with BT-IPMN (89%) than in those with P-IPMN (23%, P = 0.002). The association with invasive carcinoma was significantly more frequent in patients with BT-IPMN (44.4%) than in those with P-IPMN (6.8%, P = 0.008). Furthermore, survival time after surgical resection was significantly shorter in patients with BT-IPMN than in those with P-IPMN (P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: These findings reveal differences in clinicopathological features and prognosis between BT-IPMN and P-IPMN, thereby suggesting distinct biological pathways underlying the pathogenesis of these neoplasms.European journal of surgical oncology: the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology 03/2013; 39(6). DOI:10.1016/j.ejso.2013.02.016 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct are still poorly characterized regarding (1) their molecular alterations during the development to invasive carcinomas, (2) their subtype stratification and (3) their biological behavior. We performed a multicenter study that analyzed these issues in a large European cohort. Intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct from 45 patients were graded and subtyped using mucin markers and CDX2. In addition, tumors were analyzed for common oncogenic pathways, and the findings were correlated with subtype and grade. Data were compared with those from 22 extra- and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. Intraductal papillary neoplasms showed a development from preinvasive low- to high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia to invasive carcinoma. Molecular and immunohistochemical analysis revealed mutated KRAS, overexpression of TP53 and loss of p16 in low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia, whereas loss of SMAD4 was found in late phases of tumor development. Alterations of HER2, EGFR, β-catenin and GNAS were rare events. Among the subtypes, pancreato-biliary (36%) and intestinal (29%) were the most common, followed by gastric (18%) and oncocytic (13%) subtypes. Patients with intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct showed a slightly better overall survival than patients with cholangiocarcinoma (hazard ratio (cholangiocarcinoma versus intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct): 1.40; 95% confidence interval: 0.46-4.30; P=0.552). The development of biliary intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct follows an adenoma-carcinoma sequence that correlates with the stepwise activation of common oncogenic pathways. Further large trials are needed to investigate and verify the finding of a better prognosis of intraductal papillary neoplasms compared with conventional cholangiocarcinoma.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 5 July 2013; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.112.Modern Pathology 07/2013; 27(1). DOI:10.1038/modpathol.2013.112 · 6.36 Impact Factor