Exposure to diagnostic radiation and risk of breast cancer among carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations: retrospective cohort study (GENE-RAD-RISK)

Netherlands Cancer Institute, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam, Netherlands.
BMJ (online) (Impact Factor: 16.38). 09/2012; 345:e5660. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.e5660
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Objective To estimate the risk of breast cancer associated with diagnostic radiation in carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations.
Design Retrospective cohort study (GENE-RAD-RISK).
Setting Three nationwide studies (GENEPSO, EMBRACE, HEBON) in France, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands,
Participants 1993 female carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations recruited in 2006-09.
Main outcome measure Risk of breast cancer estimated with a weighted Cox proportional hazards model with a time dependent individually estimated cumulative breast dose, based on nominal estimates of organ dose and frequency of self reported diagnostic procedures. To correct for potential survival bias, the analysis excluded carriers who were diagnosed more than five years before completion of the study questionnaire.
Results In carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations any exposure to diagnostic radiation before the age of 30 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio 1.90, 95% confidence interval 1.20 to 3.00), with a dose-response pattern. The risks by quarter of estimated cumulative dose <0.0020 Gy, ≥0.0020-0.0065 Gy, ≥0.0066-0.0173 Gy, and ≥0.0174 Gy were 1.63 (0.96 to 2.77), 1.78 (0.88 to 3.58), 1.75 (0.72 to 4.25), and 3.84 (1.67 to 8.79), respectively. Analyses on the different types of diagnostic procedures showed a pattern of increasing risk with increasing number of radiographs before age 20 and before age 30 compared with no exposure. A history of mammography before age 30 was also associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio 1.43, 0.85 to 2.40). Sensitivity analysis showed that this finding was not caused by confounding by indication of family history.
Conclusion In this large European study among carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations, exposure to diagnostic radiation before age 30 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer at dose levels considerably lower than those at which increases have been found in other cohorts exposed to radiation. The results of this study support the use of non-ionising radiation imaging techniques (such as magnetic resonance imaging) as the main tool for surveillance in young women with BRCA1/2 mutations.

Download full-text


Available from: Dafydd Gareth Evans, Jul 28, 2015
1 Follower
  • Source
    • "It has an increased risk of false-positive results at young age (Armstrong et al, 2007), which may cause distress and unnecessary biopsies, including surgical biopsy. It also gives an additional risk of radiation-induced tumours, which is particularly relevant in younger women (Preston et al, 2002; BEIR 7, 2006) and in those with cancer susceptibility genes (Jansen-van der Weide et al, 2010; Pijpe A et al, 2012). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: There is no consensus on the most effective strategy (mammography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) for screening women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Dutch, UK and US screening strategies, which involve mammography and MRI at different ages and intervals were evaluated in high-risk women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. Methods: Into a validated simulation screening model, outcomes and cost parameters were integrated from published and cancer registry data. Main outcomes were life-years gained and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. The simulation was situated in the Netherlands as well as in the United Kingdom, comparing the Dutch, UK and US strategies with the population screening as a reference. A discount rate of 3% was applied to both costs and health benefits. Results: In terms of life-years gained, the strategies from least to most cost-effective were the UK, Dutch and US screening strategy, respectively. However, the differences were small. Applying the US strategy in the Netherlands, the costs were €43 800 and 68 800 for an additional life-year gained for BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively. At a threshold of €20 000 per life-year gained, implementing the US strategy in the Netherlands has a very low probability of being cost-effective. Stepping back to the less-effective UK strategy would save relatively little in costs and results in life-years lost. When implementing the screening strategies in the United Kingdom, the Dutch, as well as the US screening strategy have a high probability of being cost-effective. Conclusion: From a cost-effectiveness perspective, the Dutch screening strategy is preferred for screening high-risk women in the Netherlands as well as in the United Kingdom.
    British Journal of Cancer 04/2013; 108(8). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2013.149 · 4.82 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OPINION STATEMENT: Women with personal and family histories consistent with gynecologic cancer-associated hereditary cancer susceptibility disorders should be referred for genetic risk assessment and counseling. Genetic counseling facilitates informed medical decision making regarding genetic testing, screening, and treatment, including chemoprevention and risk-reducing surgery. Because of limitations of ovarian cancer screening, hereditary breast and ovarian cancer-affected women are offered risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) between ages 35 and 40 years, or when childbearing is complete. Women with documented Lynch syndrome, associated with mutations in mismatch repair genes, should be screened at a young age and provided prevention options, including consideration of risk-reducing total abdominal hysterectomy and BSO, as well as intensive gastrointestinal screening. Clinicians caring for high-risk women must consider the potential adverse ethical, legal, and social issues associated with hereditary cancer risk assessment and testing. Additionally, at-risk family members should be alerted to their cancer risks, as well as the availability of risk assessment, counseling, and treatment services.
    Current Treatment Options in Oncology 01/2013; 14(1). DOI:10.1007/s11864-012-0215-3 · 3.24 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Current clinical guidelines recommend earlier, more intensive breast cancer screening with both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and mammography for women with breast cancer susceptibility gene (BRCA) mutations. Unspecified details of screening schedules are a challenge for implementing guidelines. METHODS: A Markov Monte Carlo computer model was used to simulate screening in asymptomatic women who were BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Three dual-modality strategies were compared with digital mammography (DM) alone: 1) DM and MRI alternating at 6-month intervals beginning at age 25 years (Alt25), 2) annual MRI beginning at age 25 years with alternating DM added at age 30 years (MRI25/Alt30), and 3) DM and MRI alternating at 6-month intervals beginning at age 30 years (Alt30). Primary outcomes were quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), lifetime costs (in 2010 US dollars), and incremental cost-effectiveness (dollars per QALY gained). Additional outcomes included potential harms of screening, and lifetime costs stratified into component categories (screening and diagnosis, treatment, mortality, and patient time costs). RESULTS: All 3 dual-modality screening strategies increased QALYs and costs. Alt30 screening had the lowest incremental costs per additional QALY gained (BRCA1, $74,200 per QALY; BRCA2, $215,700 per QALY). False-positive test results increased substantially with dual-modality screening and occurred more frequently in BRCA2 carriers. Downstream savings in both breast cancer treatment and mortality costs were outweighed by increases in up-front screening and diagnosis costs. The results were influenced most by estimates of breast cancer risk and MRI costs. CONCLUSIONS: Alternating MRI and DM screening at 6-month intervals beginning at age 30 years was identified as a clinically effective approach to applying current guidelines, and was more cost-effective in BRCA1 gene mutation carriers compared with BRCA2 gene mutation carriers. Cancer 2012. © 2012 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 03/2013; 119(6). DOI:10.1002/cncr.27864 · 4.90 Impact Factor
Show more