Children's Hospital at Dartmouth-Hitchcock, The Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Department of Pediatrics, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, New Hampshire, USA.
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a significant source of morbidity among adolescents, who bear a disproportionate burden of disease. Many infections are asymptomatic, but pose significant risk for long-term sequelae in this at-risk population.
Recommendations published within the last 5 years from the Centers for Disease Control, United States Preventive Services Task Force, and American Academy of Pediatrics are available to aid providers in appropriate screening, treatment, and prevention of common STIs. However, recent data indicate that many adolescents at risk for STIs are not being appropriately screened. In this review, we summarize screening and treatment recommendations for chlamydia and gonorrhea; prevention and screening recommendations for human papilloma virus (HPV); and appropriate testing for HIV and syphilis.
Primary care providers are in a unique position to address STIs with adolescents. Improved adherence to screening, treatment, and vaccination recommendations by primary care providers is imperative to reduce prevalence, complications, and transmission of STIs in the adolescent population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: La sexualidad es una faceta de la identidad y el desarrollo sexual saludable es un objetivo importante de la adolescencia. Las decisiones que están asociadas al desarrollo sexual adolescente, tienen a menudo importantes implicancias para la salud y la educación, así como para las relaciones actuales y futuras.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amidst recent trends in rising rates of chlamydia and gonorrhea among Singaporean adolescents, there are limited data on risk factors associated with these infections that may inform prevention strategies in this population.
A cross-sectional study of chlamydia and gonorrhea positivity was conducted among 1458 sexually active heterosexual adolescents between 14 and 19 years old attending the national public sexually transmitted infection clinic from 2006 to 2013. The association with demographic and behavioral characteristics was assessed by crude prevalence ratio, and negative binomial regression modeling was used to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs).
Chlamydia positivity was found in 23.6% of males and 36.6% of females, gonorrhea positivity in 33.1% of males and 15.9% of adolescent girl, and coinfection positivity in 10.2% of males and 10.1% of females. In multivariable analysis, chlamydia was positively associated with being Malay (aPR, 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.1) and inconsistent condom use for vaginal sex (aPR, 6.5; 95% CI = 2.4-17.4) in males and with being Malay (aPR, 1.9; 95% CI = 1.5-2.4), inconsistent condom use for vaginal sex (aPR, 2.0; 95% CI = 1.1-3.9), and number of lifetime partners in females (aPR, 1.1; 95% CI = 1.0-1.1). Gonorrhea was positively associated with being Malay (aPR, 3.2; 95% CI = 2.4-4.4), inconsistent condom use for vaginal sex (aPR, 5.4; 95% CI = 2.1-14.4), and number of lifetime partners (aPR, 1.1; 95% CI = 1.0-1.1) in males and with being Malay (aPR, 3.7; 95% CI = 2.4-5.7) in females. Malays had a higher proportion of sexual risk behaviors compared with the non-Malays.
Ethnicity and high-risk sexual behaviors are important determinants of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and coinfection for adolescents attending this clinic. Targeted interventions are needed to lower the prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors for the Malay adolescents in this clinic.
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