*Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, TX ‡Liver Institute of Virginia, Bon Secours Health System, Newport News, VA †Moscow Medical Academy §State Postgraduate Medical Institute, Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia ∥Medical University of Silesia, Chorzów, Poland ¶Fundacion de Investigación De Diego Santurce, Santurce, PR #Botucatu School of Medicine, Botucatu **Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil ††IST GmbH, Mannheim, Germany ‡‡Roche, Nutley, NJ §§Roche, Welwyn, UK ∥∥Roche, Basel, Switzerland ¶¶University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
Background and goal:
Patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) with elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels achieve higher sustained virologic response (SVR) rates after peginterferon (PegIFN)/ribavirin treatment versus patients with lower LDL. Our aim was to determine whether SVR rates in patients with low/elevated LDL can be improved by dose intensification.
In PROGRESS, genotype 1 patients with baseline HCV RNA ≥ 400,000 IU/mL and body weight ≥ 85 kg were randomized to 48 weeks of 180 µg/wk PegIFN α-2a (40 kDa) plus ribavirin (A: 1200 mg/d; B: 1400/1600 mg/d) or 12 weeks of 360 µg/wk PegIFN α-2a followed by 36 weeks of 180 µg/wk, plus ribavirin (C: 1200 mg/d; D: 1400/1600 mg/d). This retrospective analysis assessed SVR rates among patients with low (<100 mg/dL) or elevated (≥ 100 mg/dL) LDL. Patients with high LDL (n=256) had higher baseline HCV RNA (5.86 × 10(6) IU/mL) versus patients with low LDL (n=262; 4.02 × 10(6) IU/mL; P=0.0003).
Multiple logistic regression analysis identified a significant interaction between PegIFN α-2a dose and LDL levels on SVR (P=0.0193). The only treatment-related SVR predictor in the nested multiple logistic regression was PegIFN α-2a dose among patients with elevated LDL (P=0.0074); therefore, data from the standard (A+B) and induction (C+D) dose arms were pooled. Among patients with low LDL, SVR rates were 40% and 35% in the standard and induction-dose groups, respectively; SVR rates in patients with high LDL were 44% and 60% (P=0.014), respectively.
Intensified dosing of PegIFN α-2a increases SVR rates in patients with elevated LDL even with the difficult-to-cure characteristics of genotype 1, high baseline viral load, and high body weight.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endocytosis of the Flaviviridae viruses, hepatitis C virus, GB virus C/hepatitis G virus, and bovine viral diarrheal virus (BVDV) was shown to be mediated by low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors on cultured cells by several lines of evidence: by the demonstration that endocytosis of these virus correlated with LDL receptor activity, by complete inhibition of detectable endocytosis by anti-LDL receptor antibody, by inhibition with anti-apolipoprotein E and -apolipoprotein B antibodies, by chemical methods abrogating lipoprotein/LDL receptor interactions, and by inhibition with the endocytosis inhibitor phenylarsine oxide. Confirmatory evidence was provided by the lack of detectable LDL receptor on cells known to be resistant to BVDV infection. Endocytosis via the LDL receptor was shown to be mediated by complexing of the virus to very low density lipoprotein or LDL but not high density lipoprotein. Studies using LDL receptor-deficient cells or a cytolytic BVDV system indicated that the LDL receptor may be the main but not exclusive means of cell entry of these viruses. Studies on other types of viruses indicated that this mechanism may not be exclusive to Flaviviridae but may be used by viruses that associate with lipoprotein in the blood. These findings provide evidence that the family of LDL receptors may serve as viral receptors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/1999; 96(22):12766-71. DOI:10.1073/pnas.96.22.12766 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At least five groups have evaluated treatment for patients with decompensated cirrhosis preliminary to liver transplantation.330–334 In the earliest reported study, 32 patients awaiting liver transplantation were considered for antiviral treatment, but over one-half were found ineligible because of cytopenias.330 Among those treated with standard or low doses of interferon alfa-2b or low doses of both interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin, 33% became HCV RNA negative. Almost all developed adverse effects, most of which was graded as severe. In a second study, 30 patients with HCV-related cirrhosis destined for liver transplantation (half graded as CTP class A) were treated with interferon alfa-2b, 3 mU daily and ribavirin, 800 mg/day if their presumed time to liver transplantion was less than 4 months.331 After a median treatment duration of 12 weeks, 30% responded to treatment and then underwent liver transplantation, 2/3 of whom remained HCV RNA negative over a median follow-up period of 46 weeks. Sixty percent developed neutropenia. Reported in the same year was a study of 20 patients, most with genotype 1 infection, who were treated before transplantation for a mean of 14 months with interferon alfa-2b in a dose of 5 mU daily.332 At transplantation, 60% were HCV RNA negative, but only 20% remained negative after transplantation. A fourth study involved 124 patients with advanced cirrhosis (CTP classes A, B and C) treated mainly with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin, and less frequently, with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin.333 Treatment began with half doses that were increased incrementally as tolerated at 2 week intervals (referred to as a low accelerating dose regimen), and growth factors were used as needed. An SVR developed in 13% of patients with genotype 1 and in 50% with non-genotype 1 infections. Adverse events were frequent, requiring dose reductions or treatment termination, but among those who did become HCV RNA negative before transplantation, 80% remained negative 6 or more months after transplantation. The most recent study is the only one to include non-treated controls but these consisted of patients unwilling to participate in the study.334 The treatment administered was peginterferon alfa-2b, 1.0 μg/kg body weight given weekly and ribavirin, 800 to 1000 mg daily for 24 weeks. An SVR developed in 44% of the patients with HCV genotypes 2 or 3, and in 7% of those with genotypes 1 or 4. Treatment had to be discontinued in 20%, was reduced in 39%, and was tolerated in 41%. Over a 30-month follow-up period, decompensated events occurred in 83% of the controls, 62% of the non-responders, and in 23% of the patients who had developed an SVR. The conclusion of this study was that antiviral therapy can be life-saving, improves hepatic function, and that treatment seems appropriate for persons with genotype 2 and 3 infections particularly in those with cirrhosis, CTP classes A and B.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) partially interacts with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, suggesting a role for lipids in regulating HCV clearance. Our aim was to study if baseline lipids can discriminate responders from non-responders among patients with HCV infection.
A total of 109 HCV patients were studied. Laboratory measurements included serum lipids, aminotransferases and viral load, as well as HCV genotype determinations.
Responders (n = 53) had significantly higher serum baseline levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B compared to non-responders (n = 56). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a 10 mg/dL increase in total cholesterol was associated with 3.02 higher odds of responding to treatment (95% CI 1.74-5.32, P < 0.001), while a 10 mg/dL increase in apolipoprotein B levels was associated with 1.81 higher odds of responding to treatment (95% CI 1.37-2.54, P < 0.001), after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking habits, baseline viral load, liver histology and administration of pegylated interferon. An inverse association between BMI and response to treatment was also evident (adjusted odds ratio 0.73, 95% CI 0.55-0.96; P = 0.03).
Baseline serum total cholesterol levels and BMI could be helpful in discriminating responders to antiviral therapy among patients with HCV infection.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 04/2008; 23(4):586-91. DOI:10.1111/j.1440-1746.2007.04911.x · 3.50 Impact Factor
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