A New Model for Companion-Animal Primary Health Care Education
ABSTRACT The majority of graduates from veterinary schools in the United States and Canada join companion-animal practices. In most schools, their clinical learning and client interaction experiences occurred primarily in referral teaching hospitals. These specialty hospitals play an essential role in the veterinary care continuum by providing advanced training, clinically-based research, and sophisticated diagnostics and procedures. However, they are not ideal as the principal setting for preparing veterinarians to bring value to the primary health care practices that they join. A new model for companion-animal primary health care education and service delivery has been developed at the Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph. The nine integrated programs, which have defined learning objectives and outcome assessments, include communication, nutrition, rehabilitation, behavior, welfare, One Health (ecosystem approach to health), preventive and general medicine, good citizenship, and research. The learning experience begins with first-year student veterinarians and takes place in a practice setting with paying clients from the community. Significantly, the students are learning in an environment that emphasizes the importance of the client experience, teamwork, and practice management while ensuring quality health care for patients. The future of companion-animal primary health care and the optimal preparation of veterinarians are critical issues for the veterinary colleges and profession. Enhanced research into new models for primary health care education and service delivery is urgently needed.
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ABSTRACT: Shelter medicine is a rapidly developing field of great importance, and shelters themselves provide abundant training opportunities for veterinary medical students. Students trained in shelter medicine have opportunities to practice zoonotic and species-specific infectious disease control, behavioral evaluation and management, primary care, animal welfare, ethics, and public-policy issues. A range of sheltering systems now exists, from brick-and-mortar facilities to networks of foster homes with no centralized facility. Exposure to a single shelter setting may not allow students to understand the full range of sheltering systems that exist; a community-classroom approach introduces students to a diverse array of sheltering systems while providing practical experience. This article presents the details and results of a series of 2-week elective clinical rotations with a focus on field and service learning in animal shelters. The overall aim was to provide opportunities that familiarized students with sheltering systems and delivered primary-care training. Other priorities included increasing awareness of public health concerns and equipping students to evaluate shelters on design, operating protocols, infectious disease control, animal enrichment, and community outreach. Students were required to participate in rounds and complete a project that addressed a need recognized by them during the rotation. This article includes costs associated with the rotation, a blueprint for how the rotation was carried out at our institution, and details of shelters visited and animals treated, including a breakdown of treatments provided. Also discussed are the student projects and student feedback on this valuable clinical experience.Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 01/2014; 41(1):1-7. DOI:10.3138/jvme.0813-105R · 0.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective-To establish the types of initial questions used by veterinarians in companion animal practice to solicit nutritional history information from owners of dogs and cats, the dietary information elicited, and the relationship between initial question-answer sequences and later nutrition-related questions. Design-Cross-sectional qualitative conversation analytic study. Sample-98 appointments featuring 15 veterinarians drawn from an observational study of 284 videotaped veterinarian-client-patient visits involving 17 veterinarians in companion animal practices in eastern Ontario, Canada. Procedures-Veterinarian and client talk related to patient nutrition was identified and transcribed; conversation analysis was then used to examine the orderly design and details of talk within and across turns. Nutrition-related discussions occurred in 172 visits, 98 of which contained veterinarian-initiated question-answer sequences about patient nutritional history (99 sequences in total, with 2 sequences in 1 visit). Results-The predominant question format used by veterinarians was a what-prefaced question asking about the current content of the patient's diet (75/99). Overall, 63 appointments involved a single what-prefaced question in the first turn of nutrition talk by the veterinarian (64 sequences in total). Dietary information in client responses was typically restricted to the brand name, the subtype (eg, kitten), or the brand name and subtype of a single food item. When additional diet questions were subsequently posed, they typically sought only clarification about the food item previously mentioned by the client. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results suggested that question design can influence the accuracy and completeness of a nutritional history. These findings can potentially provide important evidence-based guidance for communication training in nutritional assessment techniques.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 06/2015; 246(11):1203-14. DOI:10.2460/javma.246.11.1203 · 1.67 Impact Factor