Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Skeletally Immature Patients With Transphyseal Tunnels
ABSTRACT PURPOSE: Our purpose was to evaluate the results of transphyseal anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with hamstring autograft in skeletally immature patients. METHODS: Eighteen knees in 18 skeletally immature pubescent patients with a mean chronologic age of 14.2 years underwent transphyseal ACL reconstruction with hamstring autograft between 2002 and 2007. Concurrent meniscal surgery was performed in 9 knees. The final patient evaluation occurred at a mean of 43.4 months (range, 24.0 to 86.6 months) and included physical examination, KT-1000 arthrometry testing (MEDmetric, San Diego, CA), and functional outcome instruments, including the International Knee Documentation Committee subjective knee form, the Lysholm knee score, and the Tegner knee activity scale. RESULTS: At the latest follow-up, the mean International Knee Documentation Committee subjective knee score was 92.4 ± 10, the mean Lysholm knee score was 94.3 ± 8.8, and the mean Tegner activity scale score was 8.5 ± 1.4. Lachman and pivot-shift testing were negative in all knees. No restriction in knee range of motion of 5° or greater when compared with the contralateral knee was observed in any patient. The mean manual maximum side-to-side difference with KT-1000 testing was 0.29 ± 1.07 mm, and no patients had a difference greater than 3 mm. No angular deformities were noted, and all leg-length measurements were symmetric bilaterally on clinical examination. No patients had traumatic graft disruption or underwent revision ACL reconstruction, whereas 3 patients sustained an ACL injury in the contralateral leg while participating in sports. CONCLUSIONS: Transphyseal ACL reconstruction with autogenous quadrupled hamstring graft with metaphyseal fixation in skeletally immature pubescent patients yielded excellent functional outcomes in a high percentage of patients without perceived clinical growth disturbance. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, therapeutic case series.
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ABSTRACT: In pediatric patients, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is controversial; however, delaying surgery until skeletal maturity is complete may increase the risk of secondary meniscal and articular cartilage injury. To assess the risk of meniscal and chondral injuries with delay of ACL reconstruction. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Records were reviewed in patients younger than 17 years (median age, 14 years) who had ACL reconstruction. Patients were consecutively enrolled and assigned to 1 of 3 surgical groups based on timing of surgery: acute (<6 weeks after surgery), subacute (6-12 weeks), or chronic (>3 months). The type and grade of meniscal injuries was documented according to the International Society of Arthroscopy, Knee Surgery, and Orthopaedic Sports Medicine (ISAKOS) meniscal classification criteria. International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) criteria were used to document location and grade of chondral injuries. Associations between patient characteristics and meniscal injury were tested using rank sum and chi-square tests. Regression analyses were conducted to model incidence and severity of lateral and medial meniscal tears. There were 130 patients who had 135 ACL reconstructions between the years of 2000 and 2012. Sixty-two ACL injuries were treated acutely, 37 were subacute, and 36 were chronic. Meniscal injuries (n = 112) included 70 lateral and 42 medial tears. Time to surgery had bivariate association with lateral and medial meniscal tears (P = .016 and .007, respectively). Independent risk factors for incidence of lateral meniscal tears were younger age (P = .028) and return to sports activities before surgery (P = .007). Patients with 1 episode of instability had 3-fold higher odds of higher grade lateral meniscal tear (95% CI, 1.30-7.60). Compared with acute reconstruction, subacute and chronic reconstruction patients had 1.45 and 2.82 times higher odds, respectively, of lateral meniscal tear severity (P = .12). Independent risk factors for incidence of medial meniscal tears were female sex (P = .03), older age (P = .01), and any episode of instability (P = .01). Adjusted odds ratio for medial meniscal tear was 4.7 for an instability episode (vs no episode; P = .01). Adjusted odds ratio for increased severity of medial meniscal tears included any instability episode, 5.6 (P < .01); playing sports before reconstruction, 15.2 (P < .01); and time to surgery greater than 3 months, 4.3 (P = .046). Seventeen patients had 23 chondral injuries. The risk factors for chondral injury included increased time to surgery (P = .005) and any instability episode (P = .001). For increased grade of chondral injury, risk factors were time to surgery (P ≤ .001) and any instability episode (P = .003). Delayed ACL reconstruction increased the risks of secondary meniscal and chondral injuries in this population of pediatric patients. © 2014 The Author(s).The American Journal of Sports Medicine 12/2014; 43(2). DOI:10.1177/0363546514559912 · 4.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The defect of the femoral tunnel at the level of the physeal scar during transtibial and anteromedial portal (AMP) drilling for transphyseal anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was compared. Five matched pairs of knees (n=10) were drilled, and computed tomography was used to evaluate tunnel position and size at the level of the physeal scar. Significant radiographic changes were observed, including tunnel defect area at the physeal scar: 0.44 cm (1.2%) in the transtibial group versus 0.99 cm (2.7%) in the AMP group (P=0.008). AMP drilling creates a larger and more lateral tunnel defect at the level of the physeal scar.Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics B 03/2015; 24(2):106-13. DOI:10.1097/BPB.0000000000000143 · 0.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To review the most recent literature on the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of pediatric anterior cruciate ligament injury. There is an increasing prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in pediatric and adolescent athletes, and nonoperative management of these injuries results in worse outcomes than surgical reconstruction. Prevention exercise protocols are cost-effective in preventing this injury in adolescent athletes. A number of techniques are currently in practice that address anterior cruciate ligament injuries in the skeletally immature, but there is no consensus on the optimal technique. The reported clinical outcomes from anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in young patients are favorable.Current Opinion in Pediatrics 02/2015; 27(1):82-91. DOI:10.1097/MOP.0000000000000174 · 2.74 Impact Factor