Conference Paper

Honey & Honey Adulteration Detection: A Review

Conference: 11th International Congress on Engineering and Food - Athens, Greece, 2011 (iCEF11), Volume: 3

ABSTRACT Honey is an ancient valuable food and in most cases has enchanted its consumers by its medic characteristics. It consists mainly of sugars but also contains some amounts of acids, nitrogenous compounds, phenolic contents, HMF, minerals and water. Honey composition according to the studied literature is mainly dependant on its floral source and differs in various honeys. Honey adulteration is a complex problem which currently has a significant economic impact and undeniable nutritional and organoleptic consequences. There are many methods utilized for honey adulteration detection by most researchers, for instance Gas Chromatography (GC) and Liquid Chromatography (LC) analysis, Near Infrared Transflectance (NIR) spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR), Protein characterization, High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAEC-PAD), Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (HPLCIRMS), Calorimetric methods (Application of DSC), Stable Carbon Isotope Ratio Analysis (SCIRA), Fourier Transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy and Microscopic detection. These methods are all applicable and provide useful information about each aspect of honey authenticity but in order to have an overall and accurate result we should not rely on each technique solely but also do some of them concomitantly. These mentioned methods are described briefly in this review.

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Available from: Laleh Mehryar, Sep 28, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Honey adulteration is a topical issue because increasingly sophisticated adulteration methods are constantly being developed and the official (legislative) determination of the quality indicators of honey is unable to detect most methods of honey adulteration. In addition, while the popularity among consumers is constantly growing, the worldwide production of honey is unstable. The aim of this review was to provide a current overview of methods suitable for the detection of individual methods of adulteration.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. The primary objective of this review is to critique the basic concepts of non-destructive detection of food adulteration and fraud which collectively represent a tremendous annual financial loss worldwide and a major cause of human disease. Materials and methods. Literature referenced in this review article was obtained from searches from bibliographic information in CAB abstracts, AGRICOLA, SciFinder, Google Scholar, Modern Language Association (MLA), American Psychological Association (APA), OECD/EEA database on instruments used for environmental policy and natural resources management, and Web of Science. Results and discussion. Food adulteration indicates the intentional, fraudulent addition of extraneous, improper or cheaper ingredients to products or the dilution or removal of some valuable ingredient in order to increase profits. Under the present conditions, manufacturers try to get as much for their products as possible and frequently this involves compromising product quality by making and selling substandard and frequently adulterated foods. “Nondestructive detection of food adulteration” indicates the analysis of the sample and the collection of its essential features are made in such a way that the physical and chemical properties of the sample are not altered. Improving the quality and safety of foods by developing scientific methods for the detection of adulteration is a key requisite for maintaining the health of consumers. Precise, objective quality evaluation and adulteration detection in food products is an important goal of the food industry. Due to the increasing sophistication of adulteration, it is essential to stay up to date on the latest, most precise methods of detection and authentication. To this end, the following paper critiques the basic concepts of non-destructive detection of food adulteration that result in economic losses and human disease. It reviews the principles of the devices used for adulteration detection and the use of modern techniques for the non-destructive detection of food adulteration; provides examples of practical applications of these methods for the control of food adulteration; and provides comparative analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of instrumental methods used in food technology. Each of these methods is discussed in relation to products displaying different consistencies – for example products in which the sample analyzed is a gas (headspace gases around a product), free flowing liquids (juices), turbid and viscous liquids (honey and vegetable oils) and intact products (fruits and vegetables). Conclusions. Non-destructive analytical methods for the detection of adulterants are becoming increasingly important in the control of quality and safety of food products.