High-Dimensional Gene Expression Profiling Studies in High and Low Responders to Primary Smallpox Vaccination
ABSTRACT Background. The mechanisms underlying smallpox vaccine-induced variations in immune responses are not well understood, but are of considerable interest to a deeper understanding of poxvirus immunity and correlates of protection. Methods. We assessed transcriptional messenger RNA expression changes in 197 recipients of primary smallpox vaccination representing the extremes of humoral and cellular immune responses. Results. The 20 most significant differentially expressed genes include a tumor necrosis factor-receptor superfamily member, an interferon (IFN) gene, a chemokine gene, zinc finger protein genes, nuclear factors, and histones (P ≤ 1.06E(-20), q ≤ 2.64E(-17)). A pathway analysis identified 4 enriched pathways with cytokine production by the T-helper 17 subset of CD4+ T cells being the most significant pathway (P = 3.42E(-05)). Two pathways (antiviral actions of IFNs, P = 8.95E(-05); and IFN-α/β signaling pathway, P = 2.92E(-04)), integral to innate immunity, were enriched when comparing high with low antibody responders (false discovery rate, < 0.05). Genes related to immune function and transcription (TLR8, P = .0002; DAPP1, P = .0003; LAMP3, P = 9.96E(-05); NR4A2, P ≤ .0002; EGR3, P = 4.52E(-05)), and other genes with a possible impact on immunity (LNPEP, P = 3.72E(-05); CAPRIN1, P = .0001; XRN1, P = .0001), were found to be expressed differentially in high versus low antibody responders. Conclusion. We identified novel and known immunity-related genes and pathways that may account for differences in immune response to smallpox vaccination.
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- "Isolating immunogenic epitopes using a reductionist-based approach would prove to be near impossible with such a highly variable virus. Not only can vaccinomics be applied to understanding immune responses and to developing novel vaccine candidates, but this approach can also be applied to investigate why historically successful candidates are effective   . Vaccinomics as a practice is not a complete abandonment of reductionist-based science, but a supplement and enhancement of the foundations built by earlier works. "
ABSTRACT: Vaccines, like drugs and medical procedures, are increasingly amenable to individualization or personalization, often based on novel data resulting from high throughput "omics" technologies. As a result of these technologies, 21st century vaccinology will increasingly see the abandonment of a "one size fits all" approach to vaccine dosing and delivery, as well as the abandonment of the empiric "isolate-inactivate-inject" paradigm for vaccine development. In this review, we discuss the immune response network theory and its application to the new field of vaccinomics and adversomics, and illustrate how vaccinomics can lead to new vaccine candidates, new understandings of how vaccines stimulate immune responses, new biomarkers for vaccine response, and facilitate the understanding of what genetic and other factors might be responsible for rare side effects due to vaccines. Perhaps most exciting will be the ability, at a systems biology level, to integrate increasingly complex high throughput data into descriptive and predictive equations for immune responses to vaccines. Herein, we discuss the above with a view toward the future of vaccinology.Seminars in Immunology 06/2013; 25(2). DOI:10.1016/j.smim.2013.04.007 · 6.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A recent large-scale replication and heterogeneity study reported the new described GWAS locus (MCCC1/LAMP3 rs11711441) was associated with a reduced risk of Parkinson disease (PD) in Asian and Caucasian populations. Its role is still unknown in a Han Chinese population from mainland China. We genotyped the rs11711441 variant to investigate the association with risk of PD. METHODS: Using a case-control methodology, a total of 1428 Han Chinese study subjects were genotyped. We also conducted further stratified analysis according to age at onset and compared the clinical characteristics of GA + AA subjects with GG subjects. RESULTS: In this study, we confirmed that the A allele of MCCC1/LAMP3 (rs11711441) polymorphism reduces the risk to develop sporadic PD (P = 0.043). Additionally, subjects with GA + AA genotypes have a reduced risk compared to those with GG genotype (P = 0.022). The association was seen among the older age group (P = 0.014), but was not significant among the younger age group (P = 0.641). No significant differences were observed in gender, age at onset, and onset symptoms between GA + AA subjects and GG subjects. CONCLUSION: Our study, the first from Mainland China demonstrates that MCCC1/LAMP3 (rs11711441) is associated with a lower risk of PD. Further studies in additional Chinese populations and other cohorts will be useful.Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 03/2013; 128(2). DOI:10.1111/ane.12108 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We assessed the effects of sex, race and ethnicity on smallpox vaccine-induced immune responses in 1,071 armed forces members after primary Dryvax® smallpox vaccination, including 790 males and 281 females; 580 Caucasians, 217 African-Americans, and 217 Hispanics. Analysis of vaccinia-specific cytokine responses revealed that Caucasians had higher total IFNγ ELISPOT responses (median 57 spot-forming units/SFUs per 200,000 cells, p=0.01) and CD8(+)IFNγ ELISPOT responses (12 SFUs, p<0.001) than African-Americans (51 and 4 SFUs, respectively) and Hispanics (47 and 8 SFUs, respectively). Similarly, Caucasians secreted higher levels of vaccinia-specific IL-2 (p=0.003) and IFNα (p<0.001) compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Males had higher total IFNγ ELISPOT responses (median 55 SFUs) compared to females (41 SFUs, p<0.001). We observed statistically significant sex-related differences in the secretion of IL-2 (p<0.001), IL-1β (p<0.001) and IL-10 (p=0.017). These data suggest that vaccinia-specific cytokine responses following primary smallpox vaccination are significantly influenced by race and sex of vaccinees.Human immunology 06/2013; 74(10). DOI:10.1016/j.humimm.2013.06.031 · 2.28 Impact Factor