A Meta-analysis of Alcohol Drinking and Oral and Pharyngeal Cancers: Results from Subgroup Analyses
ABSTRACT AIMS: To quantify the magnitude of the association between alcohol and oral and pharyngeal cancer (OPC) by sex, smoking habits, type of alcoholic beverage and other factors. METHODS: We combined findings from all case-control and cohort studies published until September 2010 and present in this article the results classified by these factors, using a meta-analytic approach. Summary relative risks (RRs) were obtained using random-effects models; heterogeneity was assessed using the χ(2) test. RESULTS: The association between alcohol and OPC risk was similar in men and women, with similar dose-response relationships. No notable differences were found with respect to geographic area and other factors, both for drinking overall and heavy (≥4 drinks/day) drinking. Among never/non-current smokers, the pooled RRs were 1.32 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.05-1.67) for drinking, and 2.54 (95% CI, 1.80-3.58) for heavy drinking. The corresponding RRs in smokers were 2.92 (95% CI, 2.31-3.70) and 6.32 (95% CI, 5.05-7.90). The pooled RRs for any drinking irrespective of smoking were 2.12 (95% CI, 1.37-3.29) for wine-, 2.43 (95% CI, 1.92-3.07) for beer- and 2.30 (95% CI, 1.78-2.98) for spirits-only drinking. The corresponding RRs for heavy drinking were 4.92 (95% CI, 2.80-8.65), 4.20 (95% CI, 1.43-12.38) and 5.20 (95% CI, 2.77-9.78). CONCLUSION: The alcohol-related RRs are similar with respect to sex, geographic area and type of alcoholic beverage. The association between alcohol and OPC is stronger in smokers than in non-smokers.
SourceAvailable from: Faleh Sawair[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objectives The aim of the present study was to assess the levels of awareness, knowledge about signs and risk factors of mouth (oral) cancer, and attitudes towards early diagnosis and treatment among dental outpatients.Material and methodsA total of 1,200 adult outpatients attending dental clinics at the University of Jordan Hospital for dental examination and treatment were randomly selected to participate in the study. An 18-item pretested close-ended questionnaire was used for the study. Descriptive statistics were generated and chi-square tests, t-tests, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Spearman's rho test were used to examine differences between groups.ResultsOnly 45.6% of the subjects had heard about oral cancer. Some 66.9% and 33.8%, respectively, were able to correctly identify tobacco and alcohol as risk factors. Some 24.1% had no knowledge about any signs of oral cancer. Male subjects, smokers, alcohol drinkers, older participants (>40 years), and participants with less than a university education were significantly less aware, and had much less knowledge, of the signs and risk factors of oral cancer (P < 0.05).Conclusion Awareness about oral cancer among Jordanian dental outpatients is low. These dental patients, especially those in high-risk groups for mouth cancer and those of lower socio-economic status (SES), are less well informed about the signs and risk factors of oral cancer. Interventions to improve public knowledge about oral cancer and attitudes towards early diagnosis and treatment are urgently indicated.11/2014; DOI:10.1111/idj.12140
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ABSTRACT: Objective The study aims to determine the degree of anxiety pertaining to dental procedures and various oral hygiene practices among college teenagers. Method Corah’s Modified Dental Anxiety Scale was administered on a randomly chosen sample of 100 Indian college students (50 males and 50 females) of Delhi University, belonging to the age group of 17-20 years. Results Descriptive statistical computations revealed 12.14 years as the mean age of first dental visit, with moderately high levels of anxiety (60.75) for various dental procedures, amongst the Indian teenagers and 5% lying in the ‘phobic or extremely anxious’ category. With merely 4.16% people going for regular consultation, general check-ups evoked 78.3% anxiety and having an injection or tooth removed perceived as most threatening. The sample sub-group not using mouthwash & mouthspray, smokers, alcohol drinkers with improper oral hygiene practices experienced much higher anxiety towards routine dental procedures. Conclusion Majority of the Indian youngsters carried an evasive attitude of delaying dental treatment. The core problems lay in deficient health-care knowledge, lack of patient-sensitive pedagogy to train dental professionals, inaccessibility of services and dismissive attitude towards medical help. The feelings of fear and anxiety prevalent among the Indian youth offer significant insights into causes and preventive measures for future research and practice. Methods of education and motivation could be developed to dissipate the anxiety amongst Indian teenagers that prevent routine dental visits and maintenance of adequate oral hygiene.08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.phrp.2014.06.007
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ABSTRACT: Alcohol consumption is strongly associated with cigarette smoking in young adults. The primary aim of this investigation was to complete a pilot evaluation of the efficacy of an integrated intervention that targets both cigarette smoking and binge drinking on the cigarette smoking and binge behavior of young adults at 6-month follow-up. Participants were 95 young adult (M = 24.3; SD = 3.5 years) smokers (≥ 1 cigarettes per day) who binge drink (≥ 1 time per month) and who were randomly assigned to standard treatment (n = 47) involving six individual treatment visits plus eight weeks of nicotine patch therapy or the identical smoking cessation treatment integrated with a binge drinking intervention (integrated intervention; n = 48). Using an intent-to-treat analysis for tobacco abstinence, at both 3 month end of treatment and 6 month follow-up, more participants who received integrated intervention were biochemically confirmed abstinent from tobacco than those who received standard treatment at 3 months (19% vs. 9%, p = 0.06) and 6 months (21% vs. 9%, p = 0.05). At 6 months, participants who completed the study and who received integrated intervention consumed fewer drinks per month (p < 0.05) and number of binge drinking episodes per month (p < 0.05) than those who received standard treatment. Preliminary data supports that integrated intervention enhances smoking cessation and reduces binge drinking compared to standard treatment.Addictive behaviors 05/2014; 39(5):848–853. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.02.001 · 2.44 Impact Factor