To provide scientific evidence supporting the efficacy of forest bathing as a natural therapy for human hypertension.
Twenty-four elderly patients with essential hypertension were randomly divided into two groups of 12. One group was sent to a broad-leaved evergreen forest to experience a 7-day/7-night trip, and the other was sent to a city area in Hangzhou for control. Blood pressure indicators, cardiovascular disease-related pathological factors including endothelin-1, homocysteine, renin, angiotensinogen, angiotensin II, angiotensin II type 1 receptor, angiotensin II type 2 receptor as well as inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor α were detected. Meanwhile, profile of mood states (POMS) evaluation was used to assess the change of mood state of subjects. In addition, the air quality in the two experimental sites was monitored during the 7-day duration, simultaneously.
The baselines of the indicators of the subjects were not significantly different. Little alteration in the detected indicators in the city group was observed after the experiment. While subjects exposed to the forest environment showed a significant reduction in blood pressure in comparison to that of the city group. The values for the bio-indicators in subjects exposed to the forest environment were also lower than those in the urban control group and the baseline levels of themselves. POMS evaluation showed that the scores in the negative subscales were lowered after exposure to the forest environment. Besides, the air quality in the forest environment was much better than that of the urban area evidenced by the quantitative detection of negative ions and PM10 (particulate matter < 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter).
Our results provided direct evidence that forest bathing has therapeutic effects on human hypertension and induces inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system and inflammation, and thus inspiring its preventive efficacy against cardiovascular disorders.
"et influer sur la santé des personnes . Les émotions sont a ` relier avec le concept de biophilie . Les effets produits par les plantes sur la santé pourraient être chimiques . Les plantes assainissent l ' air et le dépolluent . C ' est notamment de cette façon ( Park & Mattson , 2008 , 2009 ) que sont expliqués les résultats de certaines études . Mao et al . ( 2012 ) ajoutent une mesure comparative de la qualité de l ' air entre la ville et la campagne . Leur étude montre des effets sur le POMS et la pression artérielle , et ils observent une augmentation des ions négatifs en forêt ( une valeur élevée est signe d ' une meilleure qualité de l ' air ) , une température moindre , un taux d ' humidité"
"The forest experience improved subjective mood state, and resulted in a variety of physiological changes including lowered cortisol levels, reduced sympathetic tone, improved natural killer cell count and activity, lowered pulse rate and blood pressure, and improved heart rate variability  . More recent studies, including those from China and Korea, have documented similar improvements in subjective mood and endpoints such as stress hormones, oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and blood pressure     . The major limitation of existing shinrin-yoku and forest therapy studies is small sample size. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper summarizes the discussions from the Natural Environments Initiative meeting hosted by the Harvard School of Public Health’s Center for Global Health and the Environment and the Harvard Radcliffe Institute for
Advanced Studies in October 2013. It presents ongoing worldwide research on health benefits stemming from exposure to natural environments and design cues with particular attention applications in urban environments.
This meeting generated a Workshop statement forged by the participants that affirms the health benefits of nature and presents the need for additional collaborative, transdisciplinary to refine salutogenic planning and design practices.
Workshop participants represented disciplinary and professional perspectives from medicine, landscape architecture, public heath, and forestry science rooted in the cultural, ecological and political realities of a dozen countries and five continents. When framing the benefits of nature, they considered health outcomes including mental health disorders, obesity, Type 2 diabetes, metabolic disorders, allergies, cardiovascular disease, and more. Many environmental factors (including those related to physical activity, residential planning, environmental contamination and severe weather attributed to climate change) mediate these health outcomes at local, regional and global levels. This paper provides an illustrative review that captures many relevant studies discussed during the workshop. Although not exhaustive, our review indicates that the available evidence is applicable to various populations and ecological settings, and broadly supports the association of improved health outcomes with exposure to natural environments.
Full report available at: http://www.chgeharvard.org/sites/default/files/resources/Paper-NaturalEnvironmentsInitiative_0.pdf
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Chronic stress and little physical activity play an increasing role in dominant civilization diseases. The positive contribution of nature to health has been examined in a multitude of studies. The ambition of this study is to review the present state of international research on exposure to forests and its specific effects on human health, particularly stress-reducing effects. The review focusses on research in Asia and Germanspeaking countries (GSC) in Europe, distinguishing between forest benefits for physical and mental well-being. Considering the objective of the EU Forest Action Plan (FAP) to contribute to quality of life by improving the social dimensions of forests, it also examines and compares the forest strategies and programmes of GSC. With regard to plan implementation at national levels, attention is drawn to preventive health care aspects. The results are discussed and challenges, especially for forestry in GSC, are deduced.
International Forestry Review 09/2014; 16(4). DOI:10.1505/146554814813484103 · 1.05 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.