Diaphragm function after interscalene brachial plexus block: a double-blind, randomized comparison of 0.25% and 0.125% bupivacaine.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Interscalene brachial plexus block (ISBPB) provides excellent analgesia after rotator cuff surgery but is associated with diaphragm dysfunction. In this study, ISBPB with 20 mL of 0.125% or 0.25% bupivacaine were compared to assess the effect on diaphragm function, oxygen saturation, pain control, opioid requirements, and patient satisfaction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, 30 adults undergoing outpatient arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were enrolled to receive ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus catheter placement with 20 mL of 0.125% (n = 15) or 0.25% bupivacaine (n = 15). Diaphragm function and oxygen saturation were assessed before ISBPB placement and on discharge from the postanesthesia care unit. Postoperative pain scores, opioid requirements, and patient satisfaction were compared. RESULTS: Diaphragm function and oxygen saturation were superior in the low concentration group. Absent or paradoxic motion of the diaphragm was present in 78% of the 0.25% group compared with 21% of patients in the 0.125% group (P = .008). Oxygen saturation decreased 4.3% in the 0.25% group compared with a decrease of 2.6% in the 0.125% group (P = .04). Pain scores averaged 1 of 10 in the 0.25% group and 0 of 10 in the 0.125% group (P = .02). Opioid requirements and patient satisfaction were not different between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized, double-blind comparison of ISBPB performed with 20 mL of 0.125% or 0.25% bupivacaine, diaphragm function and oxygen saturation were superior in patients treated with more dilute bupivacaine. Furthermore, there were no clinically significant differences in pain scores, and no statistically significant differences in opioid requirements and patient satisfaction.
SourceAvailable from: Kotaro Yamakado[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BackgroundRotator-cuff surgery is well recognized to be a painful procedure.ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an arthroscopically placed perineural catheter at the scapular notch to provide a continuous block of the suprascapular nerve (continuous arthroscopically assisted suprascapular nerve block [ca-SSNB]) following arthroscopic rotator-cuff repair (ARCR).Materials and methodsThis level II, prospective, randomized, controlled trial without postoperative blinding included 40 patients, who had a 48-hour pain pump, with 0.2% ropivacaine infusion and a continuous rate of 3 mL/hour, placed via an arthroscopically placed catheter following ARCR with arthroscopic release of the superior transverse ligament: 21 patients had a ca-SSNB, and 19 patients had a continuous subacromial bursal block (SAB). The visual analog scale (at 6 hours and on the first, second, and third postoperative days) and the total number of additional pain-reduction attempts during the 3 postoperative days were calculated.ResultsThe respective visual analog scale scores (mm) obtained from the ca-SSNB and SAB groups were 62.4 and 67.6 (P=0.73) before surgery, 9.1 and 19.4 (P=0.12) at 6 hours after surgery, 24.4 and 44.6 (P=0.019) on the first postoperative day, 19.4 and 40.4 (P=0.0060) on the second postoperative day, and 18.5 and 27.8 (P=0.21) on the third postoperative day. Total additional pain-reduction attempts recorded for the ca-SSNB and SAB groups during the 3 postoperative days were 0.3 times and 1.2 times (P=0.0020), respectively.Conclusionca-SSNB was highly effective in controlling postoperative pain after ARCR.Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine 05/2014; 5:129-36. DOI:10.2147/OAJSM.S63345
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the results of ultrasonographically guided axillary nerve block (ANB) combined with suprascapular nerve block (SSNB) with those of SSNB alone on postoperative pain and satisfaction within the first 48 hours after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Methods: Forty-two patients with rotator cuff tears who had undergone arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were enrolled in this study. Among them, 21 patients were randomly allocated to group 1 and received both SSNB and ANB with 10 mL ropivacaine. The other 21 patients were allocated to group 2 and received SSNB with 10 mL 0.75% ropivacaine and ANB with 10 mL saline. Visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, patient satisfaction (SAT), and lateral pain index (LPI) was checked at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 hours postoperatively. Results: Group 1 showed a significantly lower mean VAS score at postoperative 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours compared with group 2 (5.1 < 7.6, 4.4 < 6.3, 3.7 < 5.3, 3.2 < 4.5, 2.7 < 4.0, and 2.7 < 3.4, respectively). A significantly high mean SAT and low mean LPI was observed in group 1 at postoperative 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 hours (4.9 > 2.4, 5.9 > 3.7, 6.3 > 5.0, 6.8 > 5.7, 7.3 > 6.2, 7.5 > 6.6, and 7.7 > 7.0, respectively), (1.1 < 3.0, 0.8 < 2.5, 0.7 < 2.0, 0.7 < 1.6, 0.6 < 1.3, 0.6 < 1.0, and 0.4 < 0.7, respectively). The frequency of rebound pain decreased in group 1 compared with group 2 (P.032). In addition, rebound phenomenon showed a correlation with ANB on univariate logistic regression (P.034; odds ratio, 0.246). Conclusions: Ultrasonographically guided ANB combined with SSNB in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair showed an improved mean VAS in the first 24 hours after surgery compared with SSNB alone. The mean SAT and LPI of the combined blocks were better than those of the single block within the first 36 hours. Ultrasonographically guided ANB combined with SSNB also decreased the rebound phenomenon.Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 05/2014; 30(8). DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2014.03.014 · 3.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Eleven female dogs of different breeds undergoing unilateral radical (n = 7) or regional abdominal mastectomy (n = 4) received an ultrasound guided transverse abdominis plane block (TAP-block). Subjects showed single or multiple mammary tumours. Serum biochemistry, CBC and electrocardiogram were unremarkable. Eight animals were classified as ASA physical status II and 3 as ASA III. Dogs were premedicated with methadone [0.1 or 0.2 mg kg(-1) intravenously (IV) or intramuscularly respectively] or fentanyl (2.5 μgkg(-1) IV). Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane or sevoflurane. Unilateral ultrasound guided TAP blocks were performed in the caudal and cranial abdomen with bupivacaine 0.25% (0.3 to 0.35 mL kg(-1)). Intercostal nerve blocks (T4 to T11) with bupivacaine 0.25% (0.013 to 0.04 mL kg(-1)) completed the blocked area in dogs undergoing radical mastectomy. The median (range) of end-expired isoflurane and sevoflurane necessary to maintain anaesthesia was 1.15 (1.07-1.22) and 2.07 (2.05-2.2) vol% respectively. A single administration of fentanyl (2.5 μg kg(-1), IV) was administered to control nociception (defined as an increased heart rate or mean arterial blood pressure above 20% of the pre-incisional value) in four of 11 dogs. All dogs received carprofen (2 mg kg(-1) subcutaneously) at the end of surgery. Post-operative pain, assessed for 120 minutes using the short form of Glasgow Composite Pain Scale (0-24), was always lower than 3. No rescue analgesia (allowed by the protocol) was required in this time. Transverse abdominis plane block combined with intercostal nerve blocks may be useful to produce intraoperative anti-nociception and short term post-operative analgesia in dogs undergoing unilateral mastectomy.Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 02/2014; 41(3). DOI:10.1111/vaa.12122 · 1.78 Impact Factor