Diaphragm function after interscalene brachial plexus block: A double-blind, randomized comparison of 0.25% and 0.125% bupivacaine

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.
Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.] (Impact Factor: 2.29). 09/2012; 22(3). DOI: 10.1016/j.jse.2012.06.011
Source: PubMed


Interscalene brachial plexus block (ISBPB) provides excellent analgesia after rotator cuff surgery but is associated with diaphragm dysfunction. In this study, ISBPB with 20 mL of 0.125% or 0.25% bupivacaine were compared to assess the effect on diaphragm function, oxygen saturation, pain control, opioid requirements, and patient satisfaction.

Materials and methods:
In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, 30 adults undergoing outpatient arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were enrolled to receive ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus catheter placement with 20 mL of 0.125% (n = 15) or 0.25% bupivacaine (n = 15). Diaphragm function and oxygen saturation were assessed before ISBPB placement and on discharge from the postanesthesia care unit. Postoperative pain scores, opioid requirements, and patient satisfaction were compared.

Diaphragm function and oxygen saturation were superior in the low concentration group. Absent or paradoxic motion of the diaphragm was present in 78% of the 0.25% group compared with 21% of patients in the 0.125% group (P = .008). Oxygen saturation decreased 4.3% in the 0.25% group compared with a decrease of 2.6% in the 0.125% group (P = .04). Pain scores averaged 1 of 10 in the 0.25% group and 0 of 10 in the 0.125% group (P = .02). Opioid requirements and patient satisfaction were not different between the two groups.

In this randomized, double-blind comparison of ISBPB performed with 20 mL of 0.125% or 0.25% bupivacaine, diaphragm function and oxygen saturation were superior in patients treated with more dilute bupivacaine. Furthermore, there were no clinically significant differences in pain scores, and no statistically significant differences in opioid requirements and patient satisfaction.

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    • "However, ISB gives motor/sensory blockade distally, which might frustrate both patients and clinicians. In addition, ISB has been inevitably linked to the development of respiratory distress because of the potential for phrenic nerve block.42–46 This is much more a concern in continuous ISB. "
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundRotator-cuff surgery is well recognized to be a painful procedure.ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an arthroscopically placed perineural catheter at the scapular notch to provide a continuous block of the suprascapular nerve (continuous arthroscopically assisted suprascapular nerve block [ca-SSNB]) following arthroscopic rotator-cuff repair (ARCR).Materials and methodsThis level II, prospective, randomized, controlled trial without postoperative blinding included 40 patients, who had a 48-hour pain pump, with 0.2% ropivacaine infusion and a continuous rate of 3 mL/hour, placed via an arthroscopically placed catheter following ARCR with arthroscopic release of the superior transverse ligament: 21 patients had a ca-SSNB, and 19 patients had a continuous subacromial bursal block (SAB). The visual analog scale (at 6 hours and on the first, second, and third postoperative days) and the total number of additional pain-reduction attempts during the 3 postoperative days were calculated.ResultsThe respective visual analog scale scores (mm) obtained from the ca-SSNB and SAB groups were 62.4 and 67.6 (P=0.73) before surgery, 9.1 and 19.4 (P=0.12) at 6 hours after surgery, 24.4 and 44.6 (P=0.019) on the first postoperative day, 19.4 and 40.4 (P=0.0060) on the second postoperative day, and 18.5 and 27.8 (P=0.21) on the third postoperative day. Total additional pain-reduction attempts recorded for the ca-SSNB and SAB groups during the 3 postoperative days were 0.3 times and 1.2 times (P=0.0020), respectively.Conclusionca-SSNB was highly effective in controlling postoperative pain after ARCR.
    Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine 05/2014; 5:129-36. DOI:10.2147/OAJSM.S63345
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    • "Studies examining the effects of using dilute local anesthetic solutions suggest that doing so may decrease some of the unwanted respiratory side effects [19, 20]. However, duration of analgesia would likely be shorter and potentially require the addition of a continuous catheter to provide adequate analgesia. "
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    ABSTRACT: Interscalene nerve block impairs ipsilateral lung function and is relatively contraindicated for patients with lung impairment. We present a case of an 89-year-old female smoker with prior left lung lower lobectomy and mild to moderate lung disease who presented for right shoulder arthroplasty and insisted on regional anesthesia. The patient received a multimodal perioperative regimen that consisted of a continuous interscalene block, acetaminophen, ketorolac, and opioids. Surgery proceeded uneventfully and postoperative analgesia was excellent. Pulmonary physiology and management of these patients will be discussed. A risk/benefit discussion should occur with patients having impaired lung function before performance of interscalene blocks. In this particular patient with mild to moderate disease, analgesia was well managed through a multimodal approach including a continuous interscalene block, and close monitoring of respiratory status took place throughout the perioperative period, leading to a successful outcome.
    11/2013; 2013:986386. DOI:10.1155/2013/986386
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    ABSTRACT: Eleven female dogs of different breeds undergoing unilateral radical (n = 7) or regional abdominal mastectomy (n = 4) received an ultrasound guided transverse abdominis plane block (TAP-block). Subjects showed single or multiple mammary tumours. Serum biochemistry, CBC and electrocardiogram were unremarkable. Eight animals were classified as ASA physical status II and 3 as ASA III. Dogs were premedicated with methadone [0.1 or 0.2 mg kg(-1) intravenously (IV) or intramuscularly respectively] or fentanyl (2.5 μgkg(-1) IV). Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane or sevoflurane. Unilateral ultrasound guided TAP blocks were performed in the caudal and cranial abdomen with bupivacaine 0.25% (0.3 to 0.35 mL kg(-1)). Intercostal nerve blocks (T4 to T11) with bupivacaine 0.25% (0.013 to 0.04 mL kg(-1)) completed the blocked area in dogs undergoing radical mastectomy. The median (range) of end-expired isoflurane and sevoflurane necessary to maintain anaesthesia was 1.15 (1.07-1.22) and 2.07 (2.05-2.2) vol% respectively. A single administration of fentanyl (2.5 μg kg(-1), IV) was administered to control nociception (defined as an increased heart rate or mean arterial blood pressure above 20% of the pre-incisional value) in four of 11 dogs. All dogs received carprofen (2 mg kg(-1) subcutaneously) at the end of surgery. Post-operative pain, assessed for 120 minutes using the short form of Glasgow Composite Pain Scale (0-24), was always lower than 3. No rescue analgesia (allowed by the protocol) was required in this time. Transverse abdominis plane block combined with intercostal nerve blocks may be useful to produce intraoperative anti-nociception and short term post-operative analgesia in dogs undergoing unilateral mastectomy.
    Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 02/2014; 41(3). DOI:10.1111/vaa.12122 · 1.72 Impact Factor
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