Hope Predicts Positive Functional Role Outcomes in Acute Rehabilitation Populations
ABSTRACT Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between facilitating psychological variables and functional rehabilitation outcomes following acute medical rehabilitation. Research Method/Design: Using a longitudinal design and correlational and regression analyses, we studied 174 adults who were participating in inpatient rehabilitation for acute spinal cord dysfunction, stroke, amputation, or orthopedic surgery recovery. All participants completed the Hope Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) during the first days of their inpatient stay, and then were contacted 3 months after discharge to complete the Craig Hospital Assessment and Reporting Technique (CHART) and FIM. Results: Hope accounted for a statistically significant amount of the variance in the prediction of functional role participation at 3 months postdischarge (as measured by the CHART) above and beyond the variance accounted for by demographic and severity variables. In contrast, positive affect was not found to contribute to the prediction of functional role participation, and neither hope nor positive affect contributed to the prediction of functional skill level (FIM). Conclusions/Implications: The results indicate that positive psychological variables present during the rehabilitation stay, such as hopefulness, may contribute to the prediction of functional outcomes after discharge in rehabilitation populations. These findings suggest that incorporating interventions that enhance hope and build on the individual's psychological strengths may be useful to improve participation outcomes following acute medical rehabilitation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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ABSTRACT: Study design:Qualitative research design involving semi-structured focus groups.Objectives:To increase current understanding of how persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI) define resilience and what factors contribute to their resilience or the resilience of others.Setting:Inpatient rehabilitation program in a large urban city in the Southwestern United States.Methods:A convenience sample of 28 participants (14 current patients; 14 former patients) participated in semi-structured focus groups led by the research investigators.Results:Through a constant comparative analysis of the data, six themes emerged in participants' responses regarding what they believed contributed to their own resilience in adapting to SCI. The six themes included psychological strength, social support, perspective, adaptive coping, spirituality or faith, and serving as a role model or inspiring others.Conclusion:Consistent with previous research findings, individuals with SCI identified positive thinking (for example, optimism, hope and positive attitude), perseverance and determination, and social support from friends and family as important contributors to their ability to adapt in spite of experiencing traumatic events that resulted in SCI. Findings provide richness and depth to current empirical conceptualizations of resilience.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 14 January 2014; doi:10.1038/sc.2013.159.Spinal Cord 01/2014; 52(3). DOI:10.1038/sc.2013.159 · 1.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The field of positive psychology has grown exponentially within the last decade. To date, however, there have been few empirical initiatives to clarify the constructs within positive psychology as they relate to rehabilitation medicine. Character strengths and resilience following neurological trauma are clinically observable within rehabilitation settings, and greater knowledge of the way in which these factors relate to treatment variables may allow for enhanced treatment conceptualization and planning. The goal of this study was to explore the relationships between positive psychology constructs (character strengths, resilience, and positive mood) and rehabilitation-related variables (perceptions of functional ability post-injury and beliefs about treatment) within a baseline data set, a six-month follow-up data set, and longitudinally across time points. Pearson correlations were conducted within and across these time points from a starting sample of thirty-nine individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI) in an outpatient rehabilitation program. Positive psychology constructs were related to rehabilitation-related variables within the baseline data set, within the follow-up data set, and longitudinally between baseline positive psychology variables and follow-up rehabilitation-related data. These preliminary findings support correlations between character strengths, resilience, and positive mood states with perceptions of functional ability and expectations of treatment, respectively, which are primary factors in treatment success and quality of life outcomes in rehabilitation medicine settings. The results suggest the need for more research in this area, with an emphasis on incorporating positive psychology constructs into rehabilitation conceptualization and treatment planning.Neurorehabilitation 01/2014; 34(3). DOI:10.3233/NRE-141059 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Two distinct and large bodies of literature exist on resilience that are of potential interest for surgical outcomes. First is the literature on the impact of resilience on surgical recovery and wound-healing. Second is the literature on biomarkers for resilience, which largely focuses on neuropeptide Y (NPY), testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Despite this activity, there is a dearth of literature linking these two bodies of research by investigating biomarkers for surgical resilience and its impact on surgical recovery. This paper reviews both bodies of literature within the context of surgical recovery. Literature searches within Medline and Embase were conducted for studies and previous reviews of resilience biomarkers and for the impact of individual resilience on surgical recovery. Reference lists of the reviews were searched for additional papers. No systematic review is yet possible due to the novelty of the use of resilience biomarkers within a surgical context. This is the first review to explore a potential link between resilience biomarkers and surgical recovery. There are a number of biomarkers that correlate with individual resilience levels and resilient individuals exhibit better recovery trajectories following surgery, suggesting a novel use of such biomarkers for the identification of "surgical resilience". By identifying surgical resilience, there is potential for utilising these biomarkers as prognostic indicators of likely recovery trajectories from surgery, which in turn complement individualised peri-operative management.The surgeon: journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland 04/2014; 12(6). DOI:10.1016/j.surge.2014.03.006 · 2.21 Impact Factor