Bullying Involvement and Autism Spectrum Disorders Prevalence and Correlates of Bullying Involvement Among Adolescents With an Autism Spectrum Disorder
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES To produce nationally representative estimates for rates of bullying involvement among adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), to compare population estimates with adolescents who have other developmental disabilities, and to identify social ecological correlates of bullying involvement. DESIGN Nationally representative surveys from 2001. SETTING United States. PARTICIPANTS Parents of adolescents with an ASD, principals of the schools they attended, and staff members most familiar with their school programs. MAIN EXPOSURE Autism spectrum disorders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Parent report of victimization, perpetration, and victimization/perpetration within the past school year. RESULTS The prevalence rates of bullying involvement for adolescents with an ASD were 46.3% for victimization, 14.8% for perpetration, and 8.9% for victimization/perpetration. Victimization was related to having a non-Hispanic ethnicity, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, lower social skills, some form of conversational ability, and more classes in general education. Correlates of perpetration included being white, having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and getting together with friends at least once a week. Victimization/perpetration was associated with being white non-Hispanic, having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and getting together with friends at least once a week. CONCLUSIONS School-based bullying interventions need to target the core deficits of ASD (conversational ability and social skills) and comorbid conditions (eg, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). Future bullying interventions also need to address the higher rates of victimization that occur in general education settings by increasing social integration into protective peer groups and increasing the empathy and social skills of typically developing students toward their peers with an ASD.
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ABSTRACT: Evaluation of faces is an important dimension of social relationships. A degraded sensitivity to facial perceptual cues might contribute to atypical social interactions in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study investigated whether face based social judgment is atypical in ASD and if so, whether it could be related to a degraded sensitivity to facial perceptual cues. Individuals with ASD (n = 33) and IQ- and age-matched controls (n = 38) were enrolled in this study. Watching a series of photographic or synthetic faces, they had to judge them for "kindness". In synthetic stimuli, the amount of perceptual cues available could be either large or small. We observed that social judgment was atypical in the ASD group on photographic stimuli, but, contrarily to the prediction based on the degraded sensitivity hypothesis, analyses on synthetic stimuli found a similar performance and a similar effect of the amount of perceptual cues in both groups. Further studies on perceptual differences between photographs and synthetic pictures of faces might help understand atypical social judgment in ASD.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 08/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10803-014-2208-5 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous research has shown that children with autism often have deficits in deception, both in the ability to lie to others and in the ability to detect when they are being lied to. Additionally, children with autism are frequently the victims of bullying and difficulty with understanding deception likely makes the population more vulnerable to bullying. The purpose of this study was to teach individuals with autism to identify when others were lying to them, specifically to exclude them or to take their possessions. The treatment package consisted of multiple exemplar training, including rules, modeling, role-play, and immediate feedback. The results indicated that the procedure was effective for all three participants. Additionally, generalization was demonstrated to novel, untrained lies and to same-age peer confederates who were not involved in training.Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 04/2013; 7(4):503–508. DOI:10.1016/j.rasd.2012.12.001 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Research has consistently shown that children and young people with autism spectrum conditions are more likely to be bullied than those with other or no special educational needs. The aim of this study was to examine risk and protective factors that could help to explain variation in exposure to bullying within this group. A sample of 722 teachers and 119 parents reported on their child's experience of being bullied. This response variable was regressed onto a range of explanatory variables representing individual and contextual factors. The teacher- and parent-rated regression models were statistically significant, explaining large proportions of variance in exposure to bullying. Behaviour difficulties and increased age were associated with bullying in both models. Positive relationships and attending a special school were associated with a decrease in bullying in the teacher model, with use of public/school transport predicting an increase. In the parent model, special educational needs provision at School Action Plus (as opposed to having a Statement of Special Educational Needs) was a significant risk factor, and higher levels of parental engagement and confidence were associated with reductions in bullying. These findings are discussed in relation to the autism spectrum conditions literature, and opportunities for intervention are considered.Autism 07/2013; 18(6). DOI:10.1177/1362361313495965 · 3.50 Impact Factor