[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pediococcus pentosaceus displays a substrate-inducible phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) activity on p-coumaric acid. Based on DNA sequence homologies between the three PADs previously cloned, a DNA probe of the Lactobacillus plantarum pdc gene was used to screen a P. pentosaceus genomic library in order to clone the corresponding gene of this bacteria. One clone detected with this probe displayed a low PAD activity. Subcloning of this plasmid insertion allowed us to determine the part of the insert which contains a 534-bp open reading frame (ORF) coding for a 178-amino-acid protein presenting 81.5% of identity with L. plantarum PDC enzyme. This ORF was identified as the padA gene. A second ORF was located just downstream of the padA gene and displayed 37% identity with the product of the Bacillus subtilis yfiO gene. Subcloning, transcriptional analysis, and expression studies with Escherichia coli of these two genes under the padA gene promoter, demonstrated that the genes are organized in an autoregulated bicistronic operonic structure and that the gene located upstream of the padA gene encodes the transcriptional repressor of the padA gene. Transcription of this pad operon in P. pentosaceus is acid phenol dependent.
Journal of Bacteriology 01/2001; 182(23):6724-31. DOI:10.1128/JB.182.23.6724-6731.2000 · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microbial ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase) catalyzes the transformation of ferulic acid to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene (4-vinylguaiacol) via non-oxidative decarboxylation. Here we report the crystal structures of the Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 FADase and the enzyme in complex with substrate analogues. Our analyses revealed that FADase possessed a half-opened bottom β-barrel with the catalytic pocket located between the middle of the core β-barrel and the helical bottom. Its structure shared a high degree of similarity with members of the phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) superfamily. Structural analysis revealed that FADase catalyzed reactions by an "open-closed" mechanism involving a pocket of 8 × 8 × 15 Å dimension on the surface of the enzyme. The active pocket could directly contact the solvent and allow the substrate to enter when induced by substrate analogues. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the E134A mutation decreased the enzyme activity by more than 60%, and Y21A and Y27A mutations abolished the enzyme activity completely. The combined structural and mutagenesis results suggest that during decarboxylation of ferulic acid by FADase, Trp25 and Tyr27 are required for the entering and proper orientation of the substrate while Glu134 and Asn23 participate in proton transfer.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(1):e16262. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0016262 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The release of ferulic acid and the subsequent thermal or enzymatic decarboxylation to 4-vinylguaiacol are inherent to the beer production process. Phenolic, medicinal, or clove-like flavors originating from 4-vinylguaiacol frequently occur in beer made with wheat or wheat malt. To evaluate the release of ferulic acid and the transformation to 4-vinylguaiacol, beer was brewed with different proportions of barley malt, wheat, and wheat malt. Ferulic acid as well as 4-vinylguaiacol levels were determined by HPLC at several stages of the beer production process. During brewing, ferulic acid was released at the initial mashing phase, whereas moderate levels of 4-vinylguaiacol were formed by wort boiling. Higher levels of the phenolic flavor compound were produced during fermentations with brewery yeast strains of the Pof(+) phenotype. In beer made with barley malt, ferulic acid was mainly released during the brewing process. Conversely, 60-90% of ferulic acid in wheat or wheat malt beer was hydrolyzed during fermentation, causing higher 4-vinylguaiacol levels in these beers. As cereal enzymes are most likely inactivated during wort boiling, the additional release of ferulic acid during fermentation suggests the activity of feruloyl esterases produced by brewer's yeast.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 03/2004; 52(3):602-8. DOI:10.1021/jf0346556 · 3.11 Impact Factor
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