Using iPods (R) and iPads (R) in teaching programs for individuals with developmental disabilities: A systematic review

Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand.
Research in developmental disabilities (Impact Factor: 4.41). 08/2012; 34(1):147-156. DOI: 10.1016/j.ridd.2012.07.027
Source: PubMed


We conducted a systematic review of studies that involved iPods(®), iPads(®), and related devices (e.g., iPhones(®)) in teaching programs for individuals with developmental disabilities. The search yielded 15 studies covering five domains: (a) academic, (b) communication, (c) employment, (d) leisure, and (e) transitioning across school settings. The 15 studies reported outcomes for 47 participants, who ranged from 4 to 27years of age and had a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or intellectual disability. Most studies involved the use of iPods(®) or iPads(®) and aimed to either (a) deliver instructional prompts via the iPod Touch(®) or iPad(®), or (b) teach the person to operate an iPod Touch(®) or iPad(®) to access preferred stimuli. The latter also included operating an iPod Touch(®) or an iPad(®) as a speech-generating device (SGD) to request preferred stimuli. The results of these 15 studies were largely positive, suggesting that iPods(®), iPod Touch(®), iPads(®), and related devices are viable technological aids for individuals with developmental disabilities.

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Available from: Russell Lang, Oct 03, 2015
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    • "As noted above, there is documentation of the effectiveness of AAC; however, most of the research that has been conducted on technology-based systems has been limited to teaching children how to name pictures or request preferred items (Ganz et al., 2012b; Kagohara et al., 2013). There is a need for research that addresses other communicative functions, such as commenting and conversational skills (Kagohara et al., 2013; McNaughton & Light, 2013; Shane et al., 2012). In addition to the need for additional research in diverse communicative functions, there is also a need for significantly more research examining the efficacy of VSDs with individuals with ASD (Gevarter et al., 2014; Wilkinson et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Visual scene displays are a novel type of augmentative and alternative communication that has recently been investigated as an alternative to traditional, grid-based systems. However, most of the limited research on visual scene displays has focused on typically developing populations. In addition, a limited range of communicative functions has been explored (i.e., requests). This study sought to expand on the existing literature on visual scene displays by investigating the differential impact that visual scene displays versus traditional, grid-based systems have on the number of spontaneous comments and correct answers to questions made by two male, preschool children with autism. The participants in the current study were exposed to two conditions during the reading of a book—a visual scene display condition and an exchange-based communication system. The results indicated that visual scene displays may have second effects on children who display echoic and matching-to-sample skills prior to being exposed to a visual scene display.
    Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 03/2015; 11:27-41. DOI:10.1016/j.rasd.2014.11.005 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    • "However, by definition, children with ASD are impaired in the domain of social-cognition (Klin et al., 2002) and may show an aversion to engaging in social-interactions (Sigman et al., 1986). For this reason, the potentially self-contained nature of the iPad might actually be a more comfortable environment and, therefore , a better source for learning (see Kagohara et al., 2013). In particular, the device enables the user to access both auditory and visual output and provides direct reinforcement for learning (e.g., flashes or sounds when a correct response is made). "
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    ABSTRACT: The use of the Apple iPad has skyrocketed in educational settings, along with largely unsubstantiated claims of its efficacy for learning and communication in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we examine whether children with ASD are better able to learn new word–referent relations using an iPad or a traditional picture book. We also examine the hypothesis that presenting multiple, differently colored, exemplars of a target referent will promote adaptive label generalization compared to the use of a single exemplar. Sixteen minimally verbal children with ASD were taught a new word in four within-subjects conditions, which varied by media (iPad vs. book) and content (single vs. multiple exemplar presentation). Children were then tested on the ability to symbolically relate the word to a 3-D referent (real-life depicted object) and generalize it to a differently colored category member (another similarly shaped object). The extent of symbolic understanding did not differ between the two media, and levels of generalization did not differ across conditions. However, presentation of multiple exemplars increased the rate that children with ASD extended labels from pictures to depicted objects. Our findings are discussed in terms of the importance of content to picture-based learning and the potential benefits and challenges of using the Apple iPad as an educational resource for children with ASD.
    Frontiers in Psychology 02/2015; 6(138). DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00138 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    • "Finally, and perhaps most importantly, the use of a tablet or multimedia player allows the user greater flexibility and options in terms of the function of the device. That is, although the primary purpose of such a device may be to function as a SGD, the device can be used for secondary purposes including academic and leisure applications (i.e., Kagohara et al. 2013; Lorah and Parnell 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Powerful, portable, off-the-shelf handheld devices, such as tablet based computers (i.e., iPad(®); Galaxy(®)) or portable multimedia players (i.e., iPod(®)), can be adapted to function as speech generating devices for individuals with autism spectrum disorders or related developmental disabilities. This paper reviews the research in this new and rapidly growing area and delineates an agenda for future investigations. In general, participants using these devices acquired verbal repertoires quickly. Studies comparing these devices to picture exchange or manual sign language found that acquisition was often quicker when using a tablet computer and that the vast majority of participants preferred using the device to picture exchange or manual sign language. Future research in interface design, user experience, and extended verbal repertoires is recommended.
    Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10803-014-2314-4 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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