Exploring converse molecular mechanisms of anti-HIV-1 antibodies using a synthetic CXCR4 mimic.
ABSTRACT Different molecular mechanisms of the two broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies b12 and VRC01, as evidenced by their converse effects on the interaction of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 with cellular coreceptors, were demonstrated using a synthetic CXCR4 mimetic peptide (CX4-M1) as coreceptor surrogate. While the interaction of gp120 with CX4-M1 was distinctly enhanced by VRC01, b12 was shown to have the contrary effect, and also to inhibit the VRC01-induced enhancement of gp120 binding to the CXCR4 mimetic peptide.
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ABSTRACT: We present the crystal structure at 2.7 angstrom resolution of the human antibody IgG1 b12. Antibody b12 recognizes the CD4-binding site of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) gp120 and is one of only two known antibodies against gp120 capable of broad and potent neutralization of primary HIV-1 isolates. A key feature of the antibody-combining site is the protruding, finger-like long CDR H3 that can penetrate the recessed CD4-binding site of gp120. A docking model of b12 and gp120 reveals severe structural constraints that explain the extraordinary challenge in eliciting effective neutralizing antibodies similar to b12. The structure, together with mutagenesis studies, provides a rationale for the extensive cross-reactivity of b12 and a valuable framework for the design of HIV-1 vaccines capable of eliciting b12-like activity.Science 09/2001; 293(5532):1155-9. · 31.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The human monoclonal antibody Fab X5 neutralizes a broad range of HIV-1 primary isolates. The crystal structure of X5 has been determined at 1.9 A resolution. There are two crystallographically independent Fab fragments in the asymmetric unit. The crystallographic R value for the final model is 0.22. The antibody-combining site features a long (22 amino acid residues) CDR H3 with a protruding hook-shaped motif. The X5 structure and site-directed mutagenesis data suggest that X5 amino acid residues W100 and Y100F in the CDR H3 motif may be critical for the binding of Fab X5 to gp120. X5 bound to a complex of a CD4 mimetic and gp120 with approximately the same kinetics and affinity as to a CD4-gp120 complex, suggesting that specific interactions between CD4 and X5 are unlikely to contribute to the binding of X5 to gp120-CD4 complexes. Binding of X5 to alanine scanning mutants of gp120JR-CSF complexed with CD4 suggested a critical role of the highly conserved amino acid residues at positions 423 and 432. The X5 structure and fine mapping of its epitope may assist in the elucidation of the mechanisms of viral entry and neutralization, and the development of HIV-1 inhibitors and vaccines.Biochemistry 03/2004; 43(6):1410-7. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The remarkable diversity, glycosylation and conformational flexibility of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env), including substantial rearrangement of the gp120 glycoprotein upon binding the CD4 receptor, allow it to evade antibody-mediated neutralization. Despite this complexity, the HIV-1 Env must retain conserved determinants that mediate CD4 binding. To evaluate how these determinants might provide opportunities for antibody recognition, we created variants of gp120 stabilized in the CD4-bound state, assessed binding of CD4 and of receptor-binding-site antibodies, and determined the structure at 2.3 A resolution of the broadly neutralizing antibody b12 in complex with gp120. b12 binds to a conformationally invariant surface that overlaps a distinct subset of the CD4-binding site. This surface is involved in the metastable attachment of CD4, before the gp120 rearrangement required for stable engagement. A site of vulnerability, related to a functional requirement for efficient association with CD4, can therefore be targeted by antibody to neutralize HIV-1.Nature 03/2007; 445(7129):732-7. · 38.60 Impact Factor