Using Animated Computer-generated Text and Graphics to Depict the Risks and Benefits of Medical Treatment
ABSTRACT Conventional print materials for presenting risks and benefits of treatment are often difficult to understand. This study was undertaken to evaluate and compare subjects' understanding and perceptions of risks and benefits presented using animated computerized text and graphics.
Adult subjects were randomized to receive identical risk/benefit information regarding taking statins that was presented on an iPad (Apple Corp, Cupertino, Calif) in 1 of 4 different animated formats: text/numbers, pie chart, bar graph, and pictograph. Subjects completed a questionnaire regarding their preferences and perceptions of the message delivery together with their understanding of the information. Health literacy, numeracy, and need for cognition were measured using validated instruments.
There were no differences in subject understanding based on the different formats. However, significantly more subjects preferred graphs (82.5%) compared with text (17.5%, P<.001). Specifically, subjects preferred pictographs (32.0%) and bar graphs (31.0%) over pie charts (19.5%) and text (17.5%). Subjects whose preference for message delivery matched their randomly assigned format (preference match) had significantly greater understanding and satisfaction compared with those assigned to something other than their preference.
Results showed that computer-animated depictions of risks and benefits offer an effective means to describe medical risk/benefit statistics. That understanding and satisfaction were significantly better when the format matched the individual's preference for message delivery is important and reinforces the value of "tailoring" information to the individual's needs and preferences.
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ABSTRACT: Infographics, which integrate visuals and text, can increase audience engagement with message content. Relying on two experiments, this study demonstrates the role of visuals for decisions to critically evaluate pro-environmental messages. Using the Elaboration Likelihood Model as a theoretical foundation, we demonstrate that individuals engage in greater levels of issue-relevant thinking when shown infographics compared to messages that rely just on text or just on illustration, with learning preferences and visual literacy as moderators. The findings demonstrate that visual content is an important factor for persuasive message processing, and infographic messages hold opportunities for the communication of environmental issues.Science Communication 10/2014; 37(1). DOI:10.1177/1075547014555997 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Effective communication of risks and benefits to patients is critical for shared decision making. Purpose: To review the comparative effectiveness of methods of communicating probabilistic information to patients that maximize their cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Data Sources: PubMed (1966 to March 2014) and CINAHL, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1966 to December 2011) using several keywords and structured terms. Study Selection: Prospective or cross-sectional studies that recruited patients or healthy volunteers and compared any method of communicating probabilistic information with another method. Data Extraction: Two independent reviewers extracted study characteristics and assessed risk of bias. Data Synthesis: Eighty-four articles, representing 91 unique studies, evaluated various methods of numerical and visual risk display across several risk scenarios and with diverse outcome measures. Studies showed that visual aids (icon arrays and bar graphs) improved patients' understanding and satisfaction. Presentations including absolute risk reductions were better than those including relative risk reductions for maximizing accuracy and seemed less likely than presentations with relative risk reductions to influence decisions to accept therapy. The presentation of numbers needed to treat reduced understanding. Comparative effects of presentations of frequencies (such as 1 in 5) versus event rates (percentages, such as 20%) were inconclusive. Limitation: Most studies were small and highly variable in terms of setting, context, and methods of administering interventions. Conclusion: Visual aids and absolute risk formats can improve patients' understanding of probabilistic information, whereas numbers needed to treat can lessen their understanding. Due to study heterogeneity, the superiority of any single method for conveying probabilistic information is not established, but there are several good options to help clinicians communicate with patients.Annals of internal medicine 08/2014; 161(4):270. DOI:10.7326/M14-0295 · 16.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: This study presents results from qualitative interviews conducted with participants in a study on the effectiveness of the Location-Based Monitoring and Intervention System for Alcohol Use Disorders (LBMI-A), a smartphone-based, stand-alone intervention application (app) for adults with alcohol use disorders. Materials and Methods: Participants were provided an LBMI-A-enabled smartphone to use during a 6-week pilot study. The LBMI-A was composed of psychoeducational modules, assessment and feedback of alcohol use patterns, geographic high-risk location monitoring and alerts, and in vivo assessment and intervention for alcohol cravings and help with managing psychological distress. Semistructured interviews were conducted with all participants following 6 weeks of interacting with the LBMI-A app (n=26). Interviews explored user perceptions of the ease and utility of LBMI-A features, module helpfulness, barriers to use, and recommendations for improvements to the program. Researchers applied a systematic qualitative coding process to transcripts that included both a priori themes identified as important by the research team and new themes that emerged during the coding process. Results and Conclusions: Narrative analysis found the emergence of five main themes identified by LBMI-A users as the most helpful functions of the phone: (1) Awareness, (2) Accountability, (3) Skill Transference, (4) Tracking Progress, and (5) Prompts. These themes are explored, and implications of these findings for future smartphone-based interventions are discussed.Telemedicine and e-Health 09/2014; 20(10). DOI:10.1089/tmj.2013.0222 · 1.54 Impact Factor