New vaccine introduction in the East and Southern African sub-region of the WHO African region in the context of GIVS and MDGs
World Health Organization, Expanded Programme on Immunisation, Immunisation and Vaccine Development, South Africa.Vaccine (Impact Factor: 3.62). 09/2012; 30 Suppl 3:C3-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.05.086
Immunization programmes have over the years proven to be effective and useful in infectious disease control. However, based on current trends that show that many developing countries will not reach the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) targets, there is an urgent need to accelerate efforts to control the most common conditions still responsible for the largest morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age, like diarrhoea and pneumonia, for which safe and effective vaccines are now available.
- Vaccine 09/2012; 30 Suppl 3:C1-2. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.06.094 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We assessed the knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer, HPV and HPV vaccine, and willingness and acceptability to vaccinate in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. We further identified countries that fulfill the two GAVI Alliance eligibility criteria to support nationwide HPV vaccination. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed studies on the knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer, HPV and HPV vaccine, and willingness and acceptability to vaccinate. Trends in Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP3) vaccine coverage in SSA countries from 1990-2011 were extracted from the World Health Organization database. The review revealed high levels of willingness and acceptability of HPV vaccine but low levels of knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer, HPV or HPV vaccine. We identified only six countries to have met the two GAVI Alliance requirements for supporting introduction of HPV vaccine: 1) the ability to deliver multi-dose vaccines for no less than 50% of the target vaccination cohort in an average size district, and 2) achieving over 70% coverage of DTP3 vaccine nationally. From 2008 through 2011 all SSA countries, with the exception of Mauritania and Nigeria, have reached or maintained DTP3 coverage at 70% or above. There is an urgent need for more education to inform the public about HPV, HPV vaccine, and cervical cancer, particularly to key demographics, (adolescents, parents and healthcare professionals), to leverage high levels of willingness and acceptability of HPV vaccine towards successful implementation of HPV vaccination programs. There is unpreparedness in most SSA countries to roll out national HPV vaccination as per the GAVI Alliance eligibility criteria for supporting introduction of the vaccine. In countries that have met 70% DTP3 coverage, pilot programs need to be rolled out to identify the best practice and strategies for delivering HPV vaccines to adolescents and also to qualify for GAVI Alliance support.PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e90912. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0090912 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B (HB) virus (HBV) infection, which causes liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, is endemic worldwide. Hepatitis B vaccines became commercially available in the 1980s. The World Health Organization recommended the integration of the HB vaccine into the national immunisation programs in all countries. HBV prevention strategies are classified into three groups: (1) universal vaccination alone; (2) universal vaccination with screening of pregnant women plus HB immune globulin (HBIG) at birth; and (3) selective vaccination with screening of pregnant women plus HBIG at birth. Most low-income countries have adopted universal vaccine programs without screening of pregnant women. However, HB vaccines are not widely used in low-income countries. The Global Alliance for Vaccine and Immunization was launched in 2000, and by 2012, the global coverage of a three-dose HB vaccine had increased to 79%. The next challenges are to further increase the coverage rate, close the gap between recommendations and routine practices, approach high-risk individuals, screen and treat chronically infected individuals, and prevent breakthrough infections. To eradicate HBV infections, strenuous efforts are required to overcome socioeconomic barriers to the HB vaccine; this task is expected to take several decades to complete.World Journal of Gastroenterology 07/2014; 20(27):8998-9016. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v20.i27.8998 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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