In May 2012, three European Academies held a conference on the present and future of microbiology. The conference, entitled "The New Microbiology", was a joint effort of the French Académie des sciences, of the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina and of the British Royal Society. The organizers - Pascale Cossart and Philippe Sansonetti from the "Académie des sciences", David Holden and Richard Moxon from the "Royal Society", and Jörg Hacker and Jürgen Hesseman from the "Leopoldina Nationale Akademie der Wissenschaften" - wanted to highlight the current renaissance in the field of microbiology mostly due to the advent of technological developments and allowing for single-cell analysis, rapid and inexpensive genome-wide comparisons, sophisticated microscopy and quantitative large-scale studies of RNA regulation and proteomics. The conference took place in the historical Palais de l'Institut de France in Paris with the strong support of Jean-François Bach, Secrétaire Perpétuel of the Académie des sciences.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen causing an opportunistic disease called listeriosis. This bacterium invades and replicates in most cell types, due to its multiple strategies to exploit host molecular mechanisms. Research aiming at unravelling Listeria invasion and intracellular lifestyle has led to a number of key discoveries in infection biology and cell biology. In this review, we report on our most recent advances in understanding the intimate crosstalk between the bacterium and its host, resulting from in-depth studies performed over the past five years. We specifically highlight new concepts in RNA-based regulation in bacteria and discuss important findings in cell biology, including a new role for clathrin and an atypical mitochondrial fragmentation mechanism. We also illustrate the notion that bacterial infection regulates host gene expression at the chromatin level, contributing to an emerging field called patho-epigenetics. This review corresponds to the lecture given by one of us (P.C.) on the occasion of the 2014 FEBS | EMBO Woman in Science Award.
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