With the aging of the work force, occupational health nurses must prepare for encounters with clients who are challenged by osteoarthritis or osteoporosis. Clients should be encouraged to exercise safely to promote functioning at home and work. This article reviews recent literature on the benefits of exercise for workers with osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, or both.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disease with the hip and knee being commonly affected lower limb sites. Osteoarthritis causes pain, stiffness, swelling, joint instability and muscle weakness, all of which can lead to impaired physical function and reduced quality of life. This review of evidence provides recommendations for exercise prescription in those with hip or knee OA. A narrative review was performed. Conservative non-pharmacological strategies, particularly exercise, are recommended by all clinical guidelines for the management of OA and meta-analyses support these exercise recommendations. Aerobic, strengthening, aquatic and Tai chi exercise are beneficial for improving pain and function in people with OA with benefits seen across the range of disease severities. The optimal exercise dosage is yet to be determined and an individualized approach to exercise prescription is required based on an assessment of impairments, patient preference, co-morbidities and accessibility. Maximising adherence is a key element dictating success of exercise therapy. This can be enhanced by the use of supervised exercise sessions (possibly in class format) in the initial exercise period followed by home exercises. Bringing patients back for intermittent consultations with the exercise practitioner, or attendance at "refresher" group exercise classes may also assist long-term adherence and improved patient outcomes. Few studies have evaluated the effects of exercise on structural disease progression and there is currently no evidence to show that exercise can be disease modifying. Exercise plays an important role in managing symptoms in those with hip and knee OA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: to evaluate the effects of tai chi exercise on risk factors for falls in postmenopausal women with osteopaenia through measurements of balance, gait, physical function and quality of life.
a randomized, controlled, single-blinded, 24-week trial with stratification by age and bone mass.
general community. Participants: Sixty-one independently living elderly females aged 65 years and older with low bone mass.
subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to 24 weeks of tai chi (60 minutes/session, three sessions/week, n = 30) or a control group (n = 31).
computerized dynamic posturography, gait, 'timed up and go', five-chair sit-to-stand and quality of life assessed at baseline, 12 and 24 weeks.
after 24 weeks, subjects in the tai chi group demonstrated an increase in stride width (P = 0.05) and improvement in general health (P = 0.008), vitality (P = 0.02) and bodily pain (P = 0.03) compared with those in the control group. There was no significant difference in balance parameters, 'timed up and go', five-chair sit-to-stand and other domains of quality of life.
tai chi exercise may reduce risk factors for falls by increasing the stride width, and may improve quality of life in terms of general health, vitality and bodily pain in postmenopausal women with osteopaenia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a meta-analysis summarizing the effects of interventions designed to increase physical activity among healthy adults.
Our comprehensive searches located 358 reports eligible for inclusion. We used random-effects analyses to synthesize data, and we used meta-analytic analogues of regression and analysis of variance to examine potential moderator variables. We also explored moderator variable robustness and publication bias.
We computed meta-analytic results from studies comprising 99 011 participants. The overall mean effect size for comparisons of treatment groups versus control groups was 0.19 (higher mean for treatment participants than for control participants). This effect size is consistent with a mean difference of 496 ambulatory steps per day between treatment and control participants. Exploratory moderator analyses suggested that the characteristics of the most effective interventions were behavioral interventions instead of cognitive interventions, face-to-face delivery versus mediated interventions (e.g., via telephone or mail), and targeting individuals instead of communities. Participant characteristics were unrelated to physical activity effect sizes. Substantial between-studies heterogeneity remained beyond individual moderators.
Interventions designed to increase physical activity were modestly effective. Interventions to increase activity should emphasize behavioral strategies over cognitive strategies.
American Journal of Public Health 02/2011; 101(4):751-8. DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2010.194381 · 4.55 Impact Factor
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