Bisphosphonates Use in Children
ABSTRACT Bisphosphonates are synthetic analogues of pyrophosphate that inhibit bone resorption by their action on osteoclasts. In recent years, bisphosphonates have been used in children for treatment of a growing number of disorders associated primarily with generalized or localized osteoporosis, genetic and acquired metabolic bone diseases, heterotopic calcifications in soft tissues, and for hypercalcemia. In this review, the authors address the role of and experience with bisphosphonate therapy in disorders of childhood.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction Success in the treatment of young people with cancer, as measured conventionally by survival rates, is mitigated by late effects of therapy that impose a burden of morbidity and limit life expectancy. Among these adverse sequelae are altered body composition, especially obesity, and compromised bone health in the form of osteoporosis and increased fragility. These outcomes are potentially reversible and even preventable. This study will examine measures of body composition and bone health in long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in childhood and adolescence. These measures will be complemented by measures of physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Methods and analysis Survivors of ALL who are at least 10 years from diagnosis, following treatment on uniform protocols, will undergo measurements of body mass index; triceps skin fold thickness and mid-upper arm circumference; fat mass, lean body mass, skeletal muscle mass and bone mineral density by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; trabecular and cortical bone indices and muscle density by peripheral quantitative CT; physical activity by the Habitual Activity Estimation Scale; and HRQL by Health Utilities Index instruments. Descriptive measures will be used for continuous variables and number (percent) for categorical variables. Associations between variables will be assessed using Fisher's exact t test and the χ2 test; correlations will be tested by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the institutional research ethics board and is supported by a competitive funding award. Dissemination of the results will occur by presentations to scientific meetings and publications in peer-reviewed journals, and by posting summaries of the results on websites accessed by adolescent and young adult survivors of cancer.BMJ Open 01/2015; 5(1):e006191. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006191 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Bone health may be impaired in children with epilepsy. Objectives Our objective was to characterize bone mineral density (BMD) and bone growth in children receiving antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and to assess the effects of co-morbidity, vitamin D deficiency, and type of drugs used. Data sources Data were sourced from PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Eligibility criteria Cross-sectional, cohort, case-control, or randomized controlled trials reporting BMD or parameters of bone growth. Participants Children with epilepsy compared with controls. Interventions AEDS or ketogenic diet. Study appraisal The studies were evaluated by one author. Synthesis methods Studies were categorized as reporting reduced BMD or not at any skeletal site as outcome. A logistic regression was performed for age, percent boys, study design, type of AED, co-morbidity or not, and signs of vitamin D deficiency/osteomalacia or not. Results Carbamazepine and valproate were analyzed as monotherapy in 11 studies, and for both drugs a limited decrease in BMD seemed present. For oxcarbazepine, levetiracetam, phenytoin, phenobarbital, and topiramate, only one study with monotherapy was found for each drug, none of which reported decreased bone density. Polytherapy with AEDs seemed to be associated with a larger decrease in bone density than was monotherapy. Although few studies were available on bone growth, these did indicate that bone growth may be impaired among users of AEDs. Ketogenic diet may be associated with decreased bone density. The main determinant of normal BMD was absence of vitamin D deficiency/osteomalacia. Limitations The studies differed in skeletal sites studied and most were cross-sectional. No head-to-head comparisons of AEDs were performed. Children treated with polytherapy or ketogenic diet may have more complicated and severe disease than those treated with monotherapy. The underlying cause of epilepsy and vitamin D deficiency may contribute to impaired bone growth and density. Conclusions Reduced bone density, impaired bone growth, and vitamin D deficiency may be seen in children treated with drugs against epilepsy. Implications Measures to correct vitamin D deficiency, calcium intake should be taken.Paediatric Drugs 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40272-014-0115-z · 1.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bisphosphonates are employed with increasing frequency in various pediatric disorders, mainly associated with osteoporosis. After cessation of bisphosphonate treatment in children, skeletal radiologic changes have been documented including dense metaphyseal lines of the long bones and "bone in bone" appearance of the vertebrae. However, the evolution of these radiographic changes has not been fully explored. We describe the MR imaging appearance of the spine that, to our knowledge, has not been previously addressed in a child with idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis who had received bisphosphonates and emphasize the evolution of the radiographic findings of the spine and pelvis over a four-year period.