Article

The Piper Fatigue Scale-12 (PFS-12): psychometric findings and item reduction in a cohort of breast cancer survivors

Department of Health Policy & Management, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1101-D McGavran-Greenberg Hall, 135 Dauer Drive, CB 7411, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-7411, USA, .
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment (Impact Factor: 4.47). 08/2012; 136(1):9-20. DOI: 10.1007/s10549-012-2212-4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Brief, valid measures of fatigue, a prevalent and distressing cancer symptom, are needed for use in research. This study's primary aim was to create a shortened version of the revised Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS-R) based on data from a diverse cohort of breast cancer survivors. A secondary aim was to determine whether the PFS captured multiple distinct aspects of fatigue (a multidimensional model) or a single overall fatigue factor (a unidimensional model). Breast cancer survivors (n = 799; stages in situ through IIIa; ages 29-86 years) were recruited through three SEER registries (New Mexico, Western Washington, and Los Angeles, CA) as part of the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) study. Fatigue was measured approximately 3 years post-diagnosis using the 22-item PFS-R that has four subscales (Behavior, Affect, Sensory, and Cognition). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare unidimensional and multidimensional models. Six criteria were used to make item selections to shorten the PFS-R: scale's content validity, items' relationship with fatigue, content redundancy, differential item functioning by race and/or education, scale reliability, and literacy demand. Factor analyses supported the original 4-factor structure. There was also evidence from the bi-factor model for a dominant underlying fatigue factor. Six items tested positive for differential item functioning between African-American and Caucasian survivors. Four additional items either showed poor association, local dependence, or content validity concerns. After removing these 10 items, the reliability of the PFS-12 subscales ranged from 0.87 to 0.89, compared to 0.90-0.94 prior to item removal. The newly developed PFS-12 can be used to assess fatigue in African-American and Caucasian breast cancer survivors and reduces response burden without compromising reliability or validity. This is the first study to determine PFS literacy demand and to compare PFS-R responses in African-Americans and Caucasian breast cancer survivors. Further testing in diverse populations is warranted.

2 Bookmarks
 · 
377 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives Fatigue is a common and distressing symptom in cancer patients due to both the disease and its treatments. The concept of fatigue is multidimensional and includes both physical and mental components. The 22-item Revised Piper Fatigue Scale (RPFS) is a multidimensional instrument developed to assess cancer-related fatigue. This study reports on the construct validity of the Swedish version of the RPFS from the perspective of Rasch measurement. Methods The Swedish version of the RPFS was answered by 196 cancer patients fatigued after 4 to 5 weeks of curative radiation therapy. Data from the scale were fitted to the Rasch measurement model. This involved testing a series of assumptions, including the stochastic ordering of items, local response dependency, and unidimensionality. A series of fit statistics were computed, differential item functioning (DIF) was tested, and local response dependency was accommodated through testlets. Results The Behavioral, Affective and Sensory domains all satisfied the Rasch model expectations. No DIF was observed, and all domains were found to be unidimensional. The Mood/Cognitive scale failed to fit the model, and substantial multidimensionality was found. Splitting the scale between Mood and Cognitive items resolved fit to the Rasch model, and new domains were unidimensional without DIF. Conclusions The current Rasch analyses add to the evidence of measurement properties of the scale and show that the RPFS has good psychometric properties and works well to measure fatigue. The original four-factor structure, however, was not supported.
    Value in Health 06/2014; 17(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jval.2014.02.010 · 2.89 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fatigue is a frequent symptom in breast cancer patients and breast cancer survivors. The aims of this study were to test a newly developed fatigue questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-FA13) and to detect prognostic factors of fatigue. A total of 308 breast cancer patients (response rate: 91 %) were tested with the fatigue questionnaire EORTC QLQ-FA13 and the fatigue scale of the EORTC QLQ-C30. In addition, several other questionnaires were also adopted. The youngest age group of breast cancer patients was most strongly affected by fatigue. The psychometric analysis of the EORTC QLQ-FA13 supported a three-dimensional structure (physical, emotional, and cognitive fatigue). The reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.94) was very good. Clinical factors such as time since diagnosis and received therapy did not significantly predict the level of fatigue. Fatigue remains a severe problem in breast cancer patients, especially in younger women. Researchers or clinicians who want to measure fatigue have the choice between the short 3-item fatigue scale of the EORTC QLQ-C30, stressing the physical aspect of fatigue, and the long 13-item EORTC QLQ-FA13 scale with slightly better psychometric properties, including cognitive and emotional aspects of fatigue.
    Breast Cancer 03/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12282-014-0527-1 · 1.51 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives This study examined the psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory-Short Form (MFSI-SF) in a community-based sample of African-Americans. Design A sample of 340 African-Americans (116 men, 224 women) ranging in age from 18-81 years were recruited from the community (e.g., churches, health fairs, and beauty salons). Participants completed a brief demographic survey, the MFSI-SF and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Results The structural validity of the MFSI-SF for a community-based sample of African-Americans was not supported. The five dimensions of fatigue (General, Emotional, Physical, Mental, Vigor) found for Whites in prior research were not found for African-Americans in this study. Instead, fatigue, while multidimensional for African-Americans, was best represented by a unique four-four profile in which general and emotional fatigue are collapsed into a single dimension and physical fatigue, mental fatigue, and vigor are relatively distinct. Hence, in the absence of modifications, the MFSI-SF cannot be considered to be structurally invariant across ethnic groups. A modified four-factor version of the MFSI-SF exhibited excellent internal consistency reliability and evidence supports its convergent validity. Using the modified four-factor version, gender, and age were not meaningfully associated with MFSI-SF scores. Conclusion Future research should further examine whether modifications to the MFSI-SF would, as the findings suggest, improve its validity as a measure of multidimensional fatigue in African-Americans.
    Ethnicity and Health 02/2014; 19(6). DOI:10.1080/13557858.2014.885933 · 1.20 Impact Factor