BRAF Mutation in Papillary Thyroid Cancer and Its Value in Tailoring Initial Treatment A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

and Department of Epidemiology (KAC), Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.
Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.87). 08/2012; 91(5):274-86. DOI: 10.1097/MD.0b013e31826a9c71
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Clinicians have long sought to characterize biological markers of neoplasia as objective indicators of tumor presence, pathogenicity, and prognosis. Armed with data that correlate biomarker activity with disease presence and progression, clinicians can develop treatment strategies that address risks of disease recurrence or persistence and progression. The B-type Raf kinase (BRAF V600E) mutation in exon 15 of the BRAF gene has been noted to be a putative prognostic marker of the most prevalent form of thyroid cancer, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC)-a tumor type with high proclivity for recurrence or persistence. There has been a remarkable interest in determining the association of BRAF mutation with PTC recurrence or persistence. Using many new studies that have been published recently, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate correlations of BRAF mutation status with PTC prognosis, focusing on the recurrence or persistence of the disease after initial treatment.The study was based on published studies included in the PubMed and Embase databases addressing the BRAF mutation and the frequency of recurrence of PTC. We selected studies with data that enabled measurement of the risk ratio for recurrent disease. We also analyzed the factors that are classically known to be associated with recurrence. These factors included lymph node metastasis, extrathyroidal extension, distant metastasis, and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stages III/IV.We used 14 articles that included an analysis of these factors as well as PTC recurrence data, with a total of 2470 patients from 9 different countries. The overall prevalence of the BRAF mutation was 45%. The risk ratios in BRAF mutation-positive patients were 1.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.61-2.32; Z = 7.01; p < 0.00001) for PTC recurrence, 1.32 (95% CI, 1.20-1.45; Z = 5.73; p < 0.00001) for lymph node metastasis, 1.71 (95% CI, 1.50-1.94; Z = 8.09; p < 0.00001) for extrathyroidal extension, 0.95 (95% CI, 0.63-1.44; Z = 0.23; p = 0.82) for distant metastasis, and 1.70 (95% CI, 1.45-1.99; Z = 6.46; p < 0.00001) for advanced stage AJCC III/IV.Thus, in this meta-analysis, the BRAF mutation in PTC was significantly associated with PTC recurrence, lymph node metastasis, extrathyroidal extension, and advanced stage AJCC III/IV. Patients with PTC harboring mutated BRAF are likely to demonstrate factors that are associated with an increased risk for recurrence of the disease, offering new prospects for optimizing and tailoring initial treatment strategies to prevent recurrence.

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    ABSTRACT: BRAF V600E is the most frequent genetic alteration in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC); there are ongoing conflicts on its association with regional lymph node metastasis. And we aimed to test this association in a referred sample in a single institute in China. We analyzed BRAF V600E mutational status in the primary lesion of 150 PTC cases in Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) and their corresponding lymph node metastasis (if present and available) using a validated Amplification Refractory Mutation System Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR) method. Among 150 PTC cases, 121 (80.6%) primary tumors harbored BRAF V600E mutation, 66.9% (81/121) and 79.3% (23/29) had regional lymph node metastasis (LNM) in cases detected with and without BRAF V600E mutation, respectively (P = 0.195). The BRAF V600E mutational status of most of the metastatic lesions was not different to that of their primary foci (73 out of 76 cases, 96.1%, Kappa value = 0.893). The 3 inconsistent cases were all mutation positive for primary tumors and mutation negative for LNM. No association was established between BRAF V600E mutation and regional lymph node metastasis in PTC in Chinese patients.
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    ABSTRACT: Somatic gene copy number variation contributes to tumor progression. Using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) array, the presence of genomic imbalances was evaluated in a series of 27 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). To detect only somatic imbalances, for each sample, the reference DNA was from normal thyroid tissue of the same patient. The presence of the BRAF V600E mutation was also evaluated. Both amplifications and deletions showed an uneven distribution along the entire PTC cohort; amplifications were more frequent than deletions (mean values of 17.5 and 7.2, respectively). Number of aberration events was not even among samples, the majority of them occurring only in a small fraction of PTCs. Most frequent amplifications were detected at regions 2q35, 4q26, and 4q34.1, containing FN1, PDE5A, and GALNTL6 genes, respectively. Most frequent deletions occurred at regions 6q25.2, containing OPMR1 and IPCEF1 genes and 7q14.2, containing AOAH and ELMO1 genes. Amplification of FN1 and PDE5A genomic regions was confirmed by quantitative PCR. Frequency of amplifications and deletions was in relationship with clinical features and BRAF mutation status of tumor. In fact, according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer stage and American Thyroid Association (ATA) risk classification, amplifications are more frequent in higher risk samples, while deletions tend to prevail in the lower risk tumors. Analysis of single aberrations according to the ATA risk grouping shows that amplifications containing PDE5A, GALNTL6, DHRS3, and DOCK9 genes are significantly more frequent in the intermediate/high risk group than in the low risk group. Thus, our data would indicate that analysis of somatic genome aberrations by CGH array can be useful to identify additional prognostic variables.
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    ABSTRACT: The BRAF mutation occurs commonly in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Previous investigations of its utility to predict recurrence-free survival (RFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) have reported conflicting results and its role remains unclear. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence of the BRAF mutation and analyze its relationship to clinicopathologic risk factors and long-term outcomes in the largest, single-institution American cohort to date. BRAF mutational status was determined in 508 PTC patients using RFLP analysis. The relationships between BRAF mutation status, patient and tumor characteristics, RFS, and DSS were analyzed. The BRAF mutation was present in 67% of patients. On multivariate analysis, presence of the mutation predicted only for capsular invasion (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6), cervical lymph node involvement (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.7), and classic papillary histology (HR, 1.8; 95% CI 1.1-2.9). There was no significant relationship between the BRAF mutation and RFS or DSS, an observation that was consistent across univariate, multivariate, and Kaplan-Meier analyses. This is the most extensive study to date in the United States to demonstrate that BRAF mutation is of no predictive value for recurrence or survival in PTC. We found correlations of BRAF status and several clinicopathologic characteristics of high-risk disease, but limited evidence that the mutation correlates with more extensive or aggressive disease. This analysis suggests that BRAF is minimally prognostic in PTC. However, prevalence of the BRAF mutation is 70% in the general population, providing the opportunity for targeted therapy. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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