Effects of dairy intake on body weight and fat: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 08/2012; 96(4):735-47. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.112.037119
Source: PubMed


Some intervention studies have suggested that dairy products may influence body weight, but the results remain controversial.
We identified and quantified the effects of dairy consumption on body weight and fat mass from randomized controlled trials (RCTs).
We conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed and EMBASE databases (to April 2012) of English reports of RCTs regarding dairy consumption on body weight, body fat, or body weight and body fat in adults. The results across studies were pooled by using a random-effects meta-analysis.
Twenty-nine RCTs were included with a total of 2101 participants. Overall, consumption of dairy products did not result in a significant reduction in weight (-0.14 kg; 95% CI: -0.66, 0.38 kg; I(2) = 86.3%). In subgroup analysis, consumption of dairy products reduced body weight in the context of energy restriction or short-term intervention (<1 y) trials but had the opposite effect in ad libitum dietary interventions or long-term trials (≥1 y). Twenty-two RCTs that reported results on body fat showed a modest reduction in the dairy group (-0.45 kg; 95% CI: -0.79, -0.11 kg; I(2) = 70.9%), and further stratified analysis indicated significant beneficial effects of dairy intervention on body fat in energy-restricted or short-term trials but not in long-term or ad libitum studies.
This meta-analysis does not support the beneficial effect of increasing dairy consumption on body weight and fat loss in long-term studies or studies without energy restriction. However, dairy products may have modest benefits in facilitating weight loss in short-term or energy-restricted RCTs.

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    • "Several prospective studies have found an inverse relationship between dairy consumption and weight gain and abdominal obesity (Pereira and others 2002; Newby and others 2003; Lutsey and others 2008). In addition, 2 recent meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials found that increased dairy consumption resulted in greater fat mass loss and lean mass retention during short-term energy restriction (Abargouei and others 2012; Chen and others 2012). In addition, waist circumference (a marker of visceral adipose tissue and metabolic health risk) was decreased to a greater extent during energy restriction with higher dairy consumption (Abargouei and others 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle is an integral body tissue playing key roles in strength, performance, physical function, and metabolic regulation. It is essential for athletes to ensure that they have optimal amounts of muscle mass to ensure peak performance in their given sport. However, the role of maintaining muscle mass during weight loss and as we age is an emerging concept, having implications in chronic disease prevention, functional capacity, and quality of life. Higher-protein diets have been shown to: (1) promote gains in muscle mass, especially when paired with resistance training; (2) spare muscle mass loss during caloric restriction; and (3) attenuate the natural loss of muscle mass that accompanies aging. Protein quality is important to the gain and maintenance of muscle mass. Protein quality is a function of protein digestibility, amino acid content, and the resulting amino acid availability to support metabolic function. Whey protein is one of the highest-quality proteins given its amino acid content (high essential, branched-chain, and leucine amino acid content) and rapid digestibility. Consumption of whey protein has a robust ability to stimulate muscle protein synthesis. In fact, whey protein has been found to stimulate muscle protein synthesis to a greater degree than other proteins such as casein and soy. This review examines the existing data supporting the role for protein consumption, with an emphasis on whey protein, in the regulation of muscle mass and body composition in response to resistance training, caloric restriction, and aging. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®
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    • "However, in combination with energy restriction, increased dairy consumption led to greater reductions in weight, WC, and body fat mass, and greater gains in lean body mass compared with common weight loss diets. Chen et al [12] expanded upon the review of Abargouei et al, adding additional trials to their meta-analysis (for a total of 29 trials), and they concluded that increased dairy food consumption may have modest but short-lived benefits on body weight and body fat but only in energy-restricted or short-term trials. "
    III World Congress of Public Health Nutrition, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain; 11/2014
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    • "Further, dairy products incorporated within an energy-restriction diet may increase weight loss (Chen et al. 2012). Recently, obese and diabetic subjects have been found to be in a low-grade chronic inflammation state with increased plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-levels. "
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    ABSTRACT: Observational studies support that dairy product intake is associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes; however, several clinical studies report conflicting results on the association between dairy product consumption and metabolic parameters. The aim of this study was to determine associations between dairy product consumption and metabolic profile. Dietary data, using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and fasting blood samples were collected from 233 French Canadians. Plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acids (FA) concentrations were determined by gas chromatography. Subjects consumed 2.5 ± 1.4 portions of dairy products daily, including 1.6 ± 1.3 portions of low-fat (LF) and 0.90 ± 0.70 portions of high-fat (HF) dairy products. Trans-palmitoleic acid level in plasma PL was related to HF dairy consumption (r = 0.15; p = 0.04). Total (r = -0.21; p = 0.001) and LF dairy (r = -0.20; p = 0.003) intakes were inversely correlated with fasting plasma glucose level. Total dairy intake was inversely associated to systolic blood pressure (r = -0.17; p = 0.008) and diastolic blood pressure (r = -0.14; p = 0.03). LF dairy intake was also inversely correlated with systolic blood pressure (r = -0.17; p = 0.009). Total dairy intake was correlated with plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) (r = 0.15; p = 0.03). No association was found between HF dairy consumption and the risk factors studied. In conclusion, dairy intake is inversely associated with glycaemia and blood pressure; yet, it may modify CRP levels. Moreover, trans-palmitoleic FA levels in plasma PL may be potentially used to assess full-fat dairy consumption.
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