Effects of dairy intake on body weight and fat: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 08/2012; 96(4):735-47. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.112.037119
Source: PubMed


Some intervention studies have suggested that dairy products may influence body weight, but the results remain controversial.
We identified and quantified the effects of dairy consumption on body weight and fat mass from randomized controlled trials (RCTs).
We conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed and EMBASE databases (to April 2012) of English reports of RCTs regarding dairy consumption on body weight, body fat, or body weight and body fat in adults. The results across studies were pooled by using a random-effects meta-analysis.
Twenty-nine RCTs were included with a total of 2101 participants. Overall, consumption of dairy products did not result in a significant reduction in weight (-0.14 kg; 95% CI: -0.66, 0.38 kg; I(2) = 86.3%). In subgroup analysis, consumption of dairy products reduced body weight in the context of energy restriction or short-term intervention (<1 y) trials but had the opposite effect in ad libitum dietary interventions or long-term trials (≥1 y). Twenty-two RCTs that reported results on body fat showed a modest reduction in the dairy group (-0.45 kg; 95% CI: -0.79, -0.11 kg; I(2) = 70.9%), and further stratified analysis indicated significant beneficial effects of dairy intervention on body fat in energy-restricted or short-term trials but not in long-term or ad libitum studies.
This meta-analysis does not support the beneficial effect of increasing dairy consumption on body weight and fat loss in long-term studies or studies without energy restriction. However, dairy products may have modest benefits in facilitating weight loss in short-term or energy-restricted RCTs.

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    • "The interest on their potential to influence energy balance was initially provided by population studies reporting a relationship between daily calcium/dairy intake and the reduction in the risk of becoming overweight (Mccarron et al. 1984; Zemel et al. 2000). These observations were subsequently reinforced by clinical trials demonstrating the reducing effect of milk/yogurt supplementations on body fat in the context of weight-loss programs (Zemel 2004; Zemel et al. 2005a, 2005b; Gilbert et al. 2011) and recently confirmed in a metaanalysis by Chen et al. (2012). Our clinical experience also agrees with these observations since calcium + vitamin D (Major et al. 2009) and milk (Gilbert et al. 2011) supplementations were found to accentuate body weight/fat loss in obese, female, low-calcium consumers while facilitating the control of energy/lipid intake and appetite. "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to assess the impact of protein composition and/or fibre enrichment of yogurt on appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. In this double-blind crossover study, 20 healthy men (aged 32.4 ± 9.1 years) were submitted to 5 randomized testing sessions, during which they had to consume 5 isocaloric and isonproteinemic yogurt snacks (120-g servings, ∼230 kJ, ∼4.5 g protein) differing by their casein-to-whey protein ratio (C:W) or dietary fibre content: (i) control C:W = 2.8:1; (ii) high whey (HW) C:W = 1.5:1, and fibre-enriched formulations using control; (iii) 2.4 g of inulin; (iv) 1.9 g of inulin and 0.5 g of β-glucan (+IN-βG); and (v) 0.5 g of β-glucan. Appetite sensations were assessed using 150-mm visual analog scales. Plasma variables (glucose, insulin, ghrelin) were measured at 30-min intervals post-yogurt consumption for 2 h. Finally, energy intakes during ad libitum lunches offered 2 h after yogurt snacks were recorded. None of the yogurts impacted appetite sensations. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different only between HW and control yogurts (-812 kJ; p = 0.03). Regarding post-yogurt plasma variables, a significant difference was found only between ghrelin area under the curve of the +IN-βG and the HW yogurts (-15 510 pmol/L per 120 min, p = 0.04). In conclusion, although appetite sensations were not influenced by variations in yogurts' protein compositions, a reduced energy intake was observed during the ad libitum lunch after the HW yogurt that may be attributable to its lower C:W. Surprisingly, the fibre enrichments studied did not exert effect on appetite sensations and energy intake.
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    • "Several prospective studies have found an inverse relationship between dairy consumption and weight gain and abdominal obesity (Pereira and others 2002; Newby and others 2003; Lutsey and others 2008). In addition, 2 recent meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials found that increased dairy consumption resulted in greater fat mass loss and lean mass retention during short-term energy restriction (Abargouei and others 2012; Chen and others 2012). In addition, waist circumference (a marker of visceral adipose tissue and metabolic health risk) was decreased to a greater extent during energy restriction with higher dairy consumption (Abargouei and others 2012). "
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    • "However, in combination with energy restriction, increased dairy consumption led to greater reductions in weight, WC, and body fat mass, and greater gains in lean body mass compared with common weight loss diets. Chen et al [12] expanded upon the review of Abargouei et al, adding additional trials to their meta-analysis (for a total of 29 trials), and they concluded that increased dairy food consumption may have modest but short-lived benefits on body weight and body fat but only in energy-restricted or short-term trials. "

    III World Congress of Public Health Nutrition, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain; 11/2014
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